High Quality Tissue Miniarray Technique Using a Conventional TV/Radio Telescopic Antenna

  • Elkablawy, Mohamed A. (Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufyia University) ;
  • Albasri, Abdulkader M. (Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University)
  • Published : 2015.03.04


Background: The tissue microarray (TMA) is widely accepted as a fast and cost-effective research tool for in situ tissue analysis in modern pathology. However, the current automated and manual TMA techniques have some drawbacks restricting their productivity. Our study aimed to introduce an improved manual tissue miniarray (TmA) technique that is simple and readily applicable to a broad range of tissue samples. Materials and Methods: In this study, a conventional TV/radio telescopic antenna was used to punch tissue cores manually from donor paraffin embedded tissue blocks which were pre-incubated at $40^{\circ}C$. The cores were manually transferred, organized and attached to a standard block mould, and filled with liquid paraffin to construct TmA blocks without any use of recipient paraffin blocks. Results: By using a conventional TV/radio antenna, it was possible to construct TmA paraffin blocks with variable formats of array size and number ($2-mm{\times}42$, $2.5-mm{\times}30$, $3-mm{\times}24$, $4-mm{\times}20$ and $5-mm{\times}12$ cores). Up to $2-mm{\times}84$ cores could be mounted and stained on a standard microscopic slide by cutting two sections from two different blocks and mounting them beside each other. The technique was simple and caused minimal damage to the donor blocks. H&E and immunostained slides showed well-defined tissue morphology and array configuration. Conclusions: This technique is easy to reproduce, quick, inexpensive and creates uniform blocks with abundant tissues without specialized equipment. It was found to improve the stability of the cores within the paraffin block and facilitated no losses during cutting and immunostaining.


  1. Avninder S, Ylaya K, Hewitt SM (2008). Tissue microarray: a simple technology that has revolutionized research in pathology. J Postgrad Med, 54, 158-62.
  2. Azlin AH, Looi LM, Chea PL (2014). Tissue microarray immunohistochemical profiles of p53 and pRB in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3959-63.
  3. Brown LB, Huntsman D (2007). Fluorescent in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays: challenges and solutions. J Mol Hist, 38, 151-7.
  4. Cass JD, Varma S, Day AG, et al (2012). Automated quantitative analysis of p53, Cyclin D1, Ki67 and perk expression in breast carcinoma does not differ from expert pathologist scoring and correlates with clinico-pathological characteristics. Cancer, 18, 725-42.
  5. Choi CH, Kim KH, Song JY, et al (2012). Construction of highdensity tissue microarrays at low cost by using self-made manual microarray kits and recipient paraffin blocks. Korean J Pathol, 46, 562-8.
  6. Eckel-Passow JE, Lohse CM, Sheinin Y, et al (2010). Tissue microarrays: one size does not fit all. Diagn Pathol, 5, 48-58.
  7. Elkablawy MA, Maxwell P, Williamson K, Anderson N, Hamilton PW (2001). Apoptosis and cell-cycle regulatory proteins in colorectal carcinoma: relationship to tumour stage and patient survival. J Pathol, 194, 436-43.
  8. Faratian D, Graham A, Rae F, Thomas J (2009). Rapid screening of tissue microarrays for HER-2 fluorescence in situ hybridization testing is an accurate, efficient and economic method of providing an entirely in situ hybridization-based HER-2 testing service. Histopath, 54, 428-32.
  9. Foda A M (2013). No-cost manual method for preparation of tissue microarrays having high quality comparable to semiautomated methods. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol, 21, 271-4.
  10. Fowler CB, Man YG, Zhang S, et al (2011). Tissue microarrays: construction and uses. Methods Mol Biol, 724, 23-35.
  11. Jawhar NM (2009). Tissue microarray: a rapidly evolving diagnostic and research tool. Ann Saudi Med, 29, 123-7.
  12. Kim KH, Choi SJ, Choi YI, et al (2013). In-house manual construction of high-density and high-quality tissue microarrays by using homemade recipient agarose-paraffin blocks. Korean J Pathol, 47, 238-44.
  13. Laurinavicius A, Laurinaviciene A, Ostapenko V, et al (2012). Immunohistochemistry profiles of breast ductal carcinoma: factor analysis of digital image analysis data. Diagn Pathol, 7, 27-42.
  14. Papouchado BG, Myles J, Lloyd RV, et al (2010). Silver in situ hybridization (SISH) for determination of HER2 gene status in breast carcinoma: comparison with FISH and assessment of interobserver reproducibility. Am J Surg Pathol, 34, 767-76.
  15. Rakhshani N, Kalantari E, Bakhti H, Sohrabi MR, Mehrazma M (2014). Evaluation of HER-2/neu overexpression in gastric carcinoma using a tissue microarray. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 7597-602.
  16. Shebl AM, Zalata KR, Amin MM, El-Hawary AK (2011). An inexpensive method of small paraffin tissue microarrays using mechanical pencil tips. Diagn Pathol, 6, 117-21.
  17. Singh A, Sau AK (2010). Tissue microarray: a powerful and rapidly evolv¬ing tool for high-throughput analysis of clinical specimens. Int J Case Rep Images, 1, 1-6.
  18. Syed BM, Green AR, Paish EC, et al (2013). Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation with long-term clinical outcome and comparison with their younger counterparts. Br J Cancer, 108, 1042-51.
  19. Veeck J, Dahl E (2010). RNA expression analysis on formalinfixed paraffin embedded tissues in TMA format by RNA in situ hybridization. Methods Mol Biol, 664, 135-50.
  20. Wolff AC, Hammond ME, Schwartz JN, et al (2007). American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol, 25, 118-45.
  21. Wolff AC, Hammond ME, Hicks DG, et al (2013). Recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol, 31, 3997-4013.

Cited by

  1. Molecular Profiling of Breast Carcinoma in Almadinah, KSA: Immunophenotyping and Clinicopathological Correlation vol.16, pp.17, 2015,
  2. Cardioprotective effects of sitagliptin against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats vol.241, pp.14, 2016,
  3. Hepatoprotective role of vardenafil against experimentally induced hepatitis in mice vol.31, pp.3, 2016,
  4. Pirfenidone ameliorates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice via modulation of reactive oxygen species/nuclear factor kappa B signalling pathways vol.68, pp.12, 2016,
  5. Hepatoprotective effect of sitagliptin against methotrexate induced liver toxicity vol.12, pp.3, 2017,
  6. Nilotinib attenuates endothelial dysfunction and liver damage in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits vol.36, pp.11, 2017,
  7. -galactosamine/lipopolysacharride–induced fulminant hepatic failure by nilotinib vol.37, pp.1, 2018,