Incidence of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Associated Factors among Cancer Patients in Indonesia

  • Published : 2015.03.04


Background: Cisplatin is still used as a first-line medication for solid tumors. Nephrotoxicity is a serious side effect that can decrease renal function and restrict applicable doses. This research aimed to obtain the profile of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its associated factors in adult cancer patients at Dharmais National Cancer Hospital (DNCH). Materials and Methods: The design was cross-sectional with data obtained from patient medical records. We retrospectively reviewed adult cancer patients treated with cisplatin ${\geq}60mg/m^2$ for at least four consecutive chemotherapy cycles from August 2011 to November 2013. The nephrotoxicity criterion was renal function decline characterized by creatinine clearance <60 ml/min using the Cockroft-Gault (CG) equation. Results: Eighty-eight subjects received at least four chemotherapy cycles of cisplatin. The prevalence of cisplatin nephrotoxicity was 34.1%. Symptoms could be observed after the first cycle of chemotherapy, and the degree of renal impairment was higher with increased numbers of cycles (r=-0.946, $r^2=89.5%$). Factors that affected the decline of renal function were patient age (p=0.008, OR=3.433, 95%CI= 1.363-8.645) and hypertension (p=0.026, OR=2.931, 95%CI=1.120-7.670). Conclusions: Cisplatin nephrotoxicity occurred in more than one-third of patients after the fourth cycle of chemotherapy and worsened after each cycle despite preventive strategies such as hydration. The decline of renal function induced by cisplatin ${\geq}60mg/m^2$ was affected by age and hypertension.


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