DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Level of Awareness of Cervical and Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Safe Practices among College Teachers of Different States in India: Do Awareness Programmes Have an Impact on Adoption of Safe Practices?

  • Shankar, Abhishek (Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Rath, G.K. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Roy, Shubham (Department of Pediatrics, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital) ;
  • Malik, Abhidha (Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Bhandari, Ruchir (Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Kishor, Kunal (Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Barnwal, Keshav (Pink Chain Campaign) ;
  • Upadyaya, Sneha (Pink Chain Campaign) ;
  • Srivastava, Vivek (Pink Chain Campaign) ;
  • Singh, Rajan (Pink Chain Campaign)
  • Published : 2015.03.04

Abstract

Background: Breast and cervical cancers are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women in India, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. Although early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality, there are limited data on breast and cervical cancer knowledge, safe practices and attitudes of teachers in India. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of awareness and impact of awareness programs in adoption of safe practices in prevention and early detection. Materials and Methods: This assessment was part of a pink chain campaign on cancer awareness. During cancer awareness events in 2011 at various women colleges in different parts in India, a pre-test related to cervical cancer and breast cancer was followed by an awareness program. Post-tests using the same questionnaire were conducted at the end of the interactive session, at 6 months and 1 year. Results: A total of 156 out of 182 teachers participated in the study (overall response rate was 85.7 %). Mean age of the study population was 42.4 years (range- 28-59 yrs). There was a significant increase in level of knowledge regarding cervical and breast cancer at 6 months and this was sustained at 1 year. Adoption of breast self examination (BSE) was significantly more frequent in comparison to CBE, mammography and the Pap test. Magazines and newspapers were sources for knowledge regarding screening tests for breast cancer in more than 60% of teachers where as more than 75% were educated by doctors regarding the Pap test. Post awareness at 6 months and 1 year, there was a significant change in alcohol and smoking habits. Major reasons for not doing screening test were found to be ignorance (50%), lethargic attitude (44.8%) and lack of time (34.6%). Conclusions: Level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and screening methods was high as compared to cervical cancer. There was a significant increase in level of knowledge regarding cervical and breast cancer at 6 months and this was sustained at 1 year. Adoption of BSE was significantly greater in comparison to CBE, mammography and the Pap test. To inculcate safe practices in lifestyle of people, awareness programmes such as pink chain campaign should be conducted more widely and frequently.

Keywords

Breast and cervical cancer;awareness campaign;college teachers;safe practices

References

  1. AbdelHadi MS (2006). Breast cancer awareness campaign: Will it make a Difference? J Fam Community Med, 13, 115-8.
  2. Acikgoz A, Cehreli R, Ellidokuz H (2011). Women's knowledge and attitude about cancerand the behaviour for early diagnosis procedures. DEU J Med Faculty, 25, 145-54.
  3. Akgun Sahin Z, Tan M, Polat H (2013). Hopelessness, depression and social support with end of life Turkish cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 2823-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2823
  4. Akhigbe OA, Omuemu VO (2009). Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city. BMC Cancer, 9, 203. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-203
  5. Akhtar SS, Lolita Malig Reyes (1997). Cancer in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Study (1987-1995). Ann Saudi Med, 17, 595-600.
  6. Ali F, Kuelker R, Wassie B (2012). Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries. Ann Trop Med Public Health, 5, 3-15. https://doi.org/10.4103/1755-6783.92871
  7. Amosu AM, Degun AM, Thomas AM, Babalola AO (2011). Assessment of awareness, perception, specific knowledge, and screening behaviour regarding breast cancer among rural women in Ipokia Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. Arch Appl Sci Res, 3, 253-65.
  8. Barillot I, Horiot JC, Maingon P, et al (2000). Impact on treatment outcome and late effects of customized treatment planning in cervix carcinomas: baseline results to compare new strategies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 48, 189-200.
  9. Basu P ,Hassan S, Fileeshia F, et al (2014). Knowledge, attitude and practices of women in Maldives related to risk factors, prevention and Early detection of cervical cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6691-5. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.16.6691
  10. Bebis H, Reis N, Yavan T, Bayrak D, Unal A, Bodur S (2012). Effect of health education about cervical cancer and papanicolaou testing on the behavior, knowledge, and beliefs of Turkish women. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 22, 1407-12. https://doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0b013e318263f04c
  11. Bicen YH, Aksuyek H (2012). Fieldwork about importance of awareness in early diagnosis of breast cancer in Bursa. J Breast Health, 8, 76-80.
  12. Bodapati SL, Babu GR (2013). Oncologist perspectives on breast cancer screening in India - results from a qualitative study in Andhra Pradesh. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5817-23. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.5817
  13. Coucke PA, Maingon P, Ciernik IF, Phuoc Do H( 2000). A survey on staging and treatment in uterine cervical carcinoma in the radiotherapy cooperative group of the European organization for research and treatment of cancer. Radiother Oncol, 54, 221-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8140(00)00146-8
  14. Dandash KF, Al-Mohaimeed A (2007). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding breast cancer and screening in female teachers of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia. Int J Health Sci, 1, 61-71.
  15. Davidson SE, Burns M, Routledge J, et al (2002). Short report: a morbidity scoring scheme for clinical oncology practice: questionnaire produced from the LENT SOMA scoring system. Clin Oncol, 14, 68-9. https://doi.org/10.1053/clon.2001.0029
  16. Fang CY, Ma GX, Tan Y (2011). Overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening among Asian American women. N Am J Med Sci, 4, 77-834. https://doi.org/10.7156/v4i2p077
  17. Hurd T, Muti P, Erwin D, Womack (2003). An Evaluation of the integreation of non-traditional learning tools into a community based breast and cervical cancer education program: the witness project of Buffalo. BNC Cancer, 3, 18.
  18. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
  19. Kanaga KC, Nithiya J, Shatirah MF (2011). Awareness of breast cancer and screening procedures among Malaysian women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1965-7.
  20. Kanbur A, Capik C (2011). Cervical cancer prevention, early diagnosis-screening methods and midwives/nurses role. Hacettepe Univers Faculty Health Sci Nurs J, 18, 61-72.
  21. Koc Z, Saglam Z (2009). Determination of the knowledge and the practice of female patients about breast cancer, preventive measures and breast self examination and effectiveness of education. J Breast Health, 5, 25-33.
  22. Koca D, Ozdemir O, Akdeniz H, Unal OU, Yilmaz U (2013). Changes in the attitudes and behavior of relatives of breast cancer patients concerning cancer prevention and screening. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5693-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.5693
  23. Khokhar A (2009). Level of awareness regarding breast cancer and its screening amongst Indian teachers. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 247-50.
  24. Kotaniemi-Talonen L, Anttila A, Malila N et al (2008). Screening with a primary human papillomavirus test does not increase detection of cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Eur J Cancer, 44, 565-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2007.12.002
  25. Kratzke C, Vilchis H, Amatya A (2013). Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. J Community Health, 38, 560-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-013-9651-7
  26. Love R, Love S, Laudico A (2004). Breast cancer from a public health presepective. Breast J, 2, 136-40.
  27. Memon ZA, Shaikh AN , Rizwan S, Sardar MB (2013). Reasons for patient's delay in diagnosis of breast carcinoma in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7409-14. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.12.7409
  28. Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, et al (2008). Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Fam Med, 7, 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1447-056X-7-6
  29. Naim Nur (2010). Breast cancer knowledge and screening behaviors of the female teachers. Women Health, 150, 37-52.
  30. Nessa A, Hussain MA, Rashid MH, et al (2013). Role of print and audiovisual media in cervical cancer prevention in Bangladesh. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3131-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3131
  31. Oztunc G, Yesil P, Paydaş S, Erdogan S (2013). Social support and hopelessness in patients with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 571-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.571
  32. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74
  33. Parsa P, Kandiah M, Parsa N (2011). Factors associated with breast self-examination among Malaysian women teachers. East Mediterr Health J, 17, 509-16.
  34. Parsa P, Kandiah M, Parsa N (2011). Factors associated with breast self-examination among Malaysian women teachers. East Mediterr Health J, 17, 509-16.
  35. Rebentisch DP, Rebentisch HD, Thomas K, Karat S, Jadhav AJ (1995). A proven and highly cost effective method of early detection of breast cancer for developing countries. Radiotherapy Oncol, 37, 246-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8140(95)01655-4
  36. Reynolds T (1999). Declining breast cancer mortality: What behind it? J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, 750-3. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.9.750
  37. Roy B, Tang TS (2008). Cervical cancer screening in Kolkata, India: Beliefs and predictors of cervical cancer screening among women attending a women's health screening in Kolkata, India. J Cancer Edu, 23, 253-9 https://doi.org/10.1080/08858190802189105
  38. Saha A, Chaudhury AN, Bhowmik P, Chatterjee R (2010). Awareness of cervical cancer among female students of premier college in Kolkata, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 1085-90.
  39. Shrestha K (2012). Breast cancer knowledge and screening practice among women visited to KIST medical college. Nepal Med Coll J, 14, 308-11.
  40. Siddharthar JR, Rajkumar B, Deivasigamani K (2014). Knowledge, awareness and prevention of cervical cancer among women attending a tertiary care hospital in puducherry, India. J Clin Diagnostic Res, 8, 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1111/crj.12028
  41. Sogukpinar N, Karaca Saydam B, Ozturk Can H, et al (2013). Assessment of cervical cancer risk in women between 15 and 49 years of age: Case of Izmir. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 2119-25 https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2119
  42. Suleiman AK (2014). Awareness and attitudes regarding breast cancer and breast self examination among female Jordanian students. J Basic Clin Pharma, 5, 74-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-0105.139730
  43. Tabar L, Duffy SW, Vitak B, et al (1999). The natural history of breast carcinoma: What have we learned from screening? Cancer, 86, 449-62. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19990801)86:3<449::AID-CNCR13>3.0.CO;2-Q
  44. Tan YY Hesham R, Qodriyah HM (2010). Knowledge and attitude of university students in health sciences on the prevention of cervical cancer. Med J Malaysia, 65, 53-7.
  45. Tripathi N, Kadam YR, Dhobale RV, Gore AD(2014). Barriers for detection of cancer amongst Indian rural women. South Asian J Cancer, 3, 122-7. https://doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.130449
  46. Yilmaz D, Bebis H, Ortabag T (2013). Determining the awareness of and compliance with breast cancer screening among Turkish residential women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3281-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3281

Cited by

  1. Breast Cancer Inpatients Undergoing Mastectomy from a Hospital in Guangzhou, China: A Retrospective Analysis 2004-2013 vol.16, pp.11, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.11.4577
  2. Line Treatment for Metastatic Breast Cancer - a Retrospective Analysis vol.16, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6359
  3. Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Breast Cancer in a Rural District of Central India vol.16, pp.16, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.6863
  4. Association Assessment among Risk Factors and Breast Cancer in a Low Income Country: Bangladesh vol.16, pp.17, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7507