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Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Invasive Breast Carcinomas of No Special Type and Correlation with Pathological Profiles Suggest a Role in Tumorigenesis Rather than Cancer Progression

  • Misron, Nurul Akmar (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya) ;
  • Looi, Lai-Meng (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya) ;
  • Mustapha, Nik Raihan Nik (Department of Pathology, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah)
  • Published : 2015.03.09

Abstract

Background: COX-2 has been shown to play an important role in the development of breast cancer and increased expression has been mooted as a poor prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between COX-2 immunohistochemical expression and known predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer in a routine diagnostic histopathology setting. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue of 144 no special type (NST) invasive breast carcinomas histologically diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2012 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah were immunostained with COX-2 antibody. COX-2 overexpression was analysed against demographic data, hormone receptor status, HER2-neu overexpression, histological grade, tumour size and lymph node status. Results: COX-2 was overexpressed in 108/144 (75%) tumours and was significantly more prevalent (87%) in hormone receptor-positive tumours. There was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and HER2/neu status. Triple negative cancers had the lowest prevalence (46%) (p<0.05). A rising trend of COX-2 overexpression with increasing age was observed. There was a significant inverse relationship with tumour grade (p<0.05), prevalences being 94%, 83% and 66% in grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours, respectively. A higher prevalence of COX-2 overexpression in smaller size tumours was observed but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node status. Conclusions: This study did not support the generally held notion that COX-2 overexpression is linked to poor prognosis, rather supporting a role in tumorigenesis. Larger scale studies with outcome data and basic studies on cancer pathogenetic pathways will be required to cast further light on whether COX-2 inhibitors would have clinical utility in cancer prevention or blockage of cancer progression. In either setting, the pathological assessment for COX-2 overexpression in breast cancers would have an important role in the selection of cancer patients for personalized therapy with COX-2 inhibitors.

Keywords

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2);NOS-type invasive ductal breast carcinoma;immunohistochemistry

Acknowledgement

Grant : Enhancing personalized medicine through pathological profiling of cancer

Supported by : FRGS IPTA

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