- Volume 8 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Relationship between hardness and plastically deformed structural steel elements
- Nashid, Hassan (Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland) ;
- Clifton, Charles (Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland) ;
- Ferguson, George (Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland) ;
- Hodgson, Micheal (Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland) ;
- Seal, Chris (School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester) ;
- Choi, Jay-Hyouk (School of Architecture, College of Engineering, Chosun University)
- Received : 2014.03.06
- Accepted : 2014.12.12
- Published : 2015.03.25
A field based non-destructive hardness method is being developed to determine plastic strain in steel elements subjected to seismic loading. The focus of this study is on the active links of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs). The 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquake series, especially the very intense February 22 shaking, which was the first earthquake worldwide to push complete EBF systems into their inelastic state, generating a moderate to high level of plastic strain in EBF active links for a range of buildings from 3 to 23 storeys in height. Plastic deformation was confined to the active links. This raised two important questions: what was the extent of plastic deformation and what effect does that have on post-earthquake steel properties? A non-destructive hardness test method is being used to determine a relationship between hardness and plastic strain in active link beams. Active links from the earthquake affected, 23-storey Pacific Tower building in Christchurch are being analysed in the field and laboratory. Test results to date show clear evidence that this method is able to give a good relationship between plastic strain and demand. This paper presents significant findings from this project to investigate the relationship between hardness and plastic strain that warrant publication prior to the completion of the project. Principal of these is the discovery that hot rolled steel beams carry manufacturing induced plastic strains, in regions of the webs, of up to 5%.
Grant : 스마트 그린 건설기술 개발 및 실용화
- AS/NZS1365 (1996), In Australian and New Zealand Standard, Ed. Tolerance for flat-rolled steel products, Wellington.
- AS/NZS3678 (2011), In Australian and New Zealand Standard, Ed. Structural steel: Hot-rolled plates, floor plates and slabs, Wellington.
- AS1391 (2007), In Australian Standards, Ed. Metallic materials: Tensile testing at ambient temperature. Sydney.
- ASTM: A956-06 (2011), In American Society for Testing and Materials, Ed. Standard test method for Leeb hardness testing of steel products, ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States.
- ASTM: E18-11 (2012), In American Society for Testing and Materials, Ed. Standard test methods for Rockwell hardness of metallic materials, ASTM International. Pennsylvania, United States.
- ASTM: E8/E8M-09 (2009), In American Society for Testing and Materials, Ed. Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials, ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States.
- Beijing TIME High Technology Ltd. (2007), In Beijing TIME High Technology Ltd, Ed. Integrated hardness tester TH170 instruction manual (V090115), Beijing, China.
- Cahoon, J. (1972), "An improved equation relating hardness to ultimate strength", Metal. Mater. Tran. B, 3(11), 3040-3040.
- Cahoon, J., Broughton, W. and Kutzak, A. (1971), "The determination of yield strength from hardness measurements", Metal. Tran., 2(7), 1979-1983. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02913433
- Chi, B. and Uang, C. (2004), "Effect of straightening method on the cyclic behaviour of k-area in steel rolled shapes", Eng. J. Amer. Inst. Steel Constr. inc., 41(1), 15-22.
- Clifton, C., Nashid, H., Ferguson, G., Hodgson, M.A., Seal, C., Bruneau, M. and Gardiner, S. (2012), "Performance of eccentrically braced framed buildings in the Christchurch earthquake series of 2010/2011", The 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.
- Datsko, J., Hartwig, L. and McClory, B. (2001), "On the tensile strength and hardness relation for metals", J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 10(6), 718-722. https://doi.org/10.1361/105994901770344601
- Engelhardt, M.D. and Popov, E.P. (1989), "On design of eccentrically braced frames", Earthq. Spectra, 5(3), 495-511. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585537
- Feeney, M.J. and Clifton, G.C. (2001), "Seismic design procedures for steel structures including tips on seismic design of steel structures", NZ. Heavy Eng. Res. Assoc., Manukau City.
- Fujimo, M., Aoyagi, T., Ukai, K., Wada, A. and Saito, K. (1972), "Structural characteristics of eccentric Kbraced frames", Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, 195.
- Gardiner, S., Clifton, G.C. and MacRae, G.A. (2013), "Performance, damage assessment and repair of multistorey eccentrically braced framed building following the Christchurch earthquake series", Steel Innovation Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand.
- Hajjar, J.F., Leon, R.T., Gustafson, M.A. and Shield, C.K. (1998), "Seismic response of composite momentresisting connections. II: Behaviour", J. Struct. Eng., 124(8), 877-885. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1998)124:8(877)
- Hjelmstad, K.D. and Popov, E.P. (1983), "Cyclic behaviour and design of link beams", J. Struct. Eng., 109(10), 2387-2403. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1983)109:10(2387)
- Kaufmann, E. and Fisher, J. (2001), "The effect of straightening method on the k-area loading behaviour of rolled column sections", ATLSS Report, 1-16.
- Leon, R.T., Hajjar, J.F. and Gustafson, M.A. (1998), "Seismic response of composite moment-resisting connections. I: Performance", J. Struct. Eng., 124(8), 868-876. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1998)124:8(868)
- Manheim, D.N. (1982), On the Design of Eccentrically Braced Frames.
- Masui, T. and Okada, S. (1989), "A trial to improve size variation in roller straightening of H-beam.", J. Japanese Soc. Tech. Plast., 30(343), 1141-1146.
- MathWorks (2011), In Simulink, Ed. MATLAB MathWorks, Inc., United States.
- Matsumoto, Y. (2009), "Study on the residual deformation capacity of plastically strained steel", In J. Yokohama National University, Ed. Tylor and Francis group, London, UK.
- Nashid, H., Ferguson, W.G., Clifton, G.C., Hodgson, M.A., Seal, C. and MacRae, G.A. (2013), "Investigate the relationship between hardness and plastic strain in cyclically deformed structural elements", NZ Soc. Earthq. Eng., Wellington, New Zealand.
- NZS3404 (Part 1:1997), Ed. In New Zealand Standards, Steel structures standard parts 1 and 2, Wellington, New Zealand.
- NZS3404 (1997/2001/2007), Ed. In Standards New Zealand, Steel structures standard, Wellington, New Zealand.
- O'Neil, H. (1934), The hardness of metals and its measurement Campman and Hall, London.
- Okazaki, T. (2004), "Seismic performance of link-to-column connections in steel eccentrically braced frames", Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
- Pavlina, E. and Van Tyne, C. (2008), "Correlation of yield strength and tensile strength with hardness for steels", J. Mat. Eng. Perform., 17(6), 888-893. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-008-9225-5
- Popov, E.P. and Engelhardt, M.D. (1988), "Seismic eccentrically braced frames", J. Constr. Steel Res., 10, 321-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/0143-974X(88)90034-X
- Roeder, C.W., Popov, E.P., American Iron and Steel Institute (1977), "Inelastic behaviour of eccentrically braced steel frames under cyclic loadings", Earthq. Eng. Res. Centre, College of Engineering, University of California.
- Tanabashi, R. and Taneta, K. (1962), "On the relation between the restoring force characteristics of structures and the patterns of earthquake ground motion", Proceeding of Japan National Symposium Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Japan.
- Tide, R. (2000), "Evaluation of steel properties and cracking in "k"-area of W shapes", Eng. Struct., 22(2), 128-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(98)00102-3
- Veletsos, A.S. (1969), "Maximum deformation of certain nonlinear systems", Proceedings of 4th World Conference Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile.
- Workman, G.H. (1969), "The inelastic behaviour of multi-storey braced frame structures subjected to earthquake excitation", University of Michigan Research Report.