Health monitoring of a new hysteretic damper subjected to earthquakes on a shaking table

  • Romo, L. (Department of Applied Physics University of Granada) ;
  • Benavent-Climent, A. (Department of Mechanics of Structures and Industrial Constructions Polytechnic University of Madrid) ;
  • Morillas, L. (Department of Structural Mechanics University of Granada) ;
  • Escolano, D. (Department of Structural Mechanics University of Granada) ;
  • Gallego, A. (Department of Applied Physics University of Granada)
  • Received : 2013.11.11
  • Accepted : 2014.05.20
  • Published : 2015.03.25


This paper presents the experimental results obtained by applying frequency-domain structural health monitoring techniques to assess the damage suffered on a special type of damper called Web Plastifying Damper (WPD). The WPD is a hysteretic type energy dissipator recently developed for the passive control of structures subjected to earthquakes. It consists of several I-section steel segments connected in parallel. The energy is dissipated through plastic deformations of the web of the I-sections, which constitute the dissipative parts of the damper. WPDs were subjected to successive histories of dynamically-imposed cyclic deformations of increasing magnitude with the shaking table of the University of Granada. To assess the damage to the web of the I-section steel segments after each history of loading, a new damage index called Area Index of Damage (AID) was obtained from simple vibration tests. The vibration signals were acquired by means of piezoelectric sensors attached on the I-sections, and non-parametric statistical methods were applied to calculate AID in terms of changes in frequency response functions. The damage index AID was correlated with another energy-based damage index -ID- which past research has proven to accurately characterize the level of mechanical damage. The ID is rooted in the decomposition of the load-displacement curve experienced by the damper into the so-called skeleton and Bauschinger parts. ID predicts the level of damage and the proximity to failure of the damper accurately, but it requires costly instrumentation. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate a good correlation between AID and ID in a realistic seismic loading scenario consisting of dynamically applied arbitrary cyclic loads. Based on this correlation, it is possible to estimate ID indirectly from the AID, which calls for much simpler and less expensive instrumentation.



  1. Benavent-Climent, A. (2007), "An energy based damage model for seismic response of steel structures", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 36, 1049-1064.
  2. Benavent-Climent, A., Morillas, L. and Vico, J. (2011a), "A study on using wide-flange section web under out-of-plane flexure for passive energy dissipation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 40(5), 473-490.
  3. Benavent-Climent, A. (2011b), "An energy-based method for seismic retrofit of existing frames using hysteretic dampers", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 31, 1385-1396.
  4. Benavent-Climent, A., Gallego, A., Romo-Melo, L. and Morillas, L. (2014), "Health monitoring of hysteretic dampers subjected to cyclic loading through vibration tests", Struct. Health Monit., 13, 33-49.
  5. Black, C.J., Makris, N. and Aiken, I.D. (2004), "Component testing, seismic evaluation and characterization of buckling-restrained braces", J. Struct. Eng., 130(6), 880-894.
  6. Christopoulos, C. and Filiatrault, A. (2006), Principles of passive supplemental damping and seismic isolation, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.
  7. Dawson, B. (1976), "Vibration condition monitoring techniques for rotating machinery", Shock Vib. Dig., 8(12), 3.
  8. Doebling, S., Farrar, C., Prime, M. and Shevitz, D. (1998), "A review of damage identification methods that examine changes in dynamic properties", Shock Vib. Dig., 30(2), 91-105.
  9. Fassois, S. and Sakellariou, J. (2007), "Time series methods for fault detection and identification in vibrating structures", R. Soc. Philos. Tran.: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 365, 411-448.
  10. Gallego, A., Benavent-Climent, A. and Romo-Melo, L. (2012), "Piezoelectric sensing and non-parametric statistical signal processing for health monitoring of hysteretic dampers used in seismic-resistant structures", Mech. Syst. Sig. Proc.
  11. Goulet, C.A., Haselton, C.B., Mitrani-Reiser, J., Beck, J.L., Dierlein, G.G., Porter, K.A. and Steward, J.P. (2007), "Evaluation of the seismic performance of a code-conforming reinforced-concrete frame buildingfrom seismic hazard to collapse safety and economic losses", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 36,1973-1997.
  12. Gray, M.G., Christopoulos, C. and Packer, J.A. (2010), "Cast steel yielding fuse for concentrically braced frames", Proceedings of the 9th U.S. National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Toronto, Canada.
  13. Housner, G., Bergman, L., Caughey, T., Chassiakos, A., Claus, R., Masri, S., Skelton, R., Soong, T. and Spencer, B. (1997), "Structural control: Past, present, and future", J. Eng. Mech., 9(123), 897-958.
  14. Kay, S. (1988), Modern spectral estimation: Theory and application, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, NJ.
  15. Kampas, G. and Makris, N. (2012), "Time and frequency domain identification of seismically isolated structures: advantages and limitations", Earthq. Struct., 3(3), 249-270.
  16. Konstantinidis, D., Makris, N. and Kelly, J.M. (2012), "Health monitoring of fluid dampers for vibration control of structures: experimental investigation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 41(13), 1813-1829.
  17. Makris, N. and Kampas, G. (2013), "The engineering merit of the 'effective period' of bilinear isolation systems", Earthq. Struct., 4(4), 397-428.
  18. Palermo, M., Silvestri, S., Gasparini, G. and Trombetti, T. (2014), "Crescent shaped braces for the seismic design of building structures", Mater. Struct., 1-18.
  19. Romo-Melo, L. (2012), "Health monitoring of health monitoring of WPD-type hysteretic dampers used for passive control of earthquake resistant structures by means of vibration analysis in the frequency domain", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Granada, Spain.
  20. Rotondo, B. and Barbat, A. (2004), "Diseno sismorresistente de edificios: tecnicas convencionales y avanzadas", Reverte.
  21. Rytter, A. (1993), "Vibration based inspection of civil engineering structures", Ph.D. Thesis, Aalborg University, Denmark.
  22. Symans, M.D., Charney, F.A., Whittaker, A.S., Constantinou, M.C., Kircher, C.A., Johnson, M.W. and McNamara, R.J. (2008), "Energy dissipation systems for seismic applications: Current practice and recent developments", J. Struct. Eng., 134(1), 3-21.

Cited by

  1. Behaviour of Multi-Storey Prefabricated Modular Buildings under seismic loads vol.11, pp.6, 2016,
  2. Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Signal Analysis for Damage Evaluation of Metallic Slit-Plate Hysteretic Dampers vol.7, pp.12, 2017,
  3. Wavelet energy ratio index for health monitoring of hysteretic dampers vol.25, pp.2, 2018,
  4. Strategy for required data reduction in the practical implementation in a low-cost electronic platform of an index for damage assessment of seismic dampers vol.114, 2018,
  5. Entropy Analysis for Damage Quantification of Hysteretic Dampers Used as Seismic Protection of Buildings vol.7, pp.6, 2017,