Dynamics of high-speed train in crosswinds based on an air-train-track interaction model

  • Zhai, Wanming (Train and Track Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University) ;
  • Yang, Jizhong (China Railway Eryuan Engineering Group Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Li, Zhen (Train and Track Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University) ;
  • Han, Haiyan (Beijing Urban Construction Design and Development Group Co. Ltd)
  • Received : 2014.11.20
  • Accepted : 2015.01.05
  • Published : 2015.02.25


A numerical model for analyzing air-train-track interaction is proposed to investigate the dynamic behavior of a high-speed train running on a track in crosswinds. The model is composed of a train-track interaction model and a train-air interaction model. The train-track interaction model is built on the basis of the vehicle-track coupled dynamics theory. The train-air interaction model is developed based on the train aerodynamics, in which the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is employed to deal with the dynamic boundary between the train and the air. Based on the air-train-track model, characteristics of flow structure around a high-speed train are described and the dynamic behavior of the high-speed train running on track in crosswinds is investigated. Results show that the dynamic indices of the head car are larger than those of other cars in crosswinds. From the viewpoint of dynamic safety evaluation, the running safety of the train in crosswinds is basically controlled by the head car. Compared with the generally used assessment indices of running safety such as the derailment coefficient and the wheel-load reduction ratio, the overturning coefficient will overestimate the running safety of a train on a track under crosswind condition. It is suggested to use the wheel-load reduction ratio and the lateral wheel-rail force as the dominant safety assessment indices when high-speed trains run in crosswinds.


Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)


  1. Baker, C.J. (1991a), "Ground vehicles in high cross wind, Part I: steady aerodynamic forces", J. Fluid. Struct., 5(1), 69-90.
  2. Baker, C.J. (1991b), "Ground vehicles in high cross wind, Part II: unsteady aerodynamic forces", J. Fluid. Struct., 5(1), 91-111.
  3. Balzer, Z.A. (1977), "Atmospheric turbulence encountered by high-speed ground transport vehicles", J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 19(5), 227-235.
  4. Cheli, F., Ripamonti, F., Rocchi, D. and Tomasini, G. (2010), "Aerodynamic behaviour investigation of the new EMUV250 train to cross wind", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 98(4-5), 189-201.
  5. Chiu, T.W. (1991), "A two-dimensional second-order vortex panel method for the flow in a crosswind over a train and other two-dimensional bluff bodies", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 37(1), 43-64.
  6. Chiu, T.W. (1995), "Prediction of the aerodynamic loads on a railway train in a crosswind at large yaw angles using an integrated two- and three-dimensional source/vortex panel method", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 57(1), 19-39.
  7. Cooper, R.K. (1979), "The effect of crosswinds on trains", Proceedings of the ASME-CSME Conference on Aerodynamics of Transportation, Niagara, June 18-20.
  8. Cooper, R.K. (1984), "Atmospheric turbulence with respect to moving ground vehicles", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 17(2), 215-238.
  9. Dahlberg, T. (1995), "Vertical dynamic train/track interaction - verifying a theoretical model by full-scale experiments", Vehicle Syst. Dyn., 24(1), 45-57.
  10. Diedrichs, B. (2003), "On computational fluid dynamics modeling of crosswind effects for high-speed rolling stock", J. Rail Rapid Transit, 217 (3), 203-226.
  11. Diedrichs, B., Sima, M., Orellano, A. and Tengstrand, H. (2007), "Crosswind stability of a high-speed train on a high embankment", J. Rail Rapid Transit, 221(2), 205-225.
  12. Diedrichs, B. (2010), "Aerodynamic crosswind stability of a regional train model", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: J. Rail Rapid Transit, 224(6), 580-591.
  13. Donea, J., Huerta, A., Ponthot, J.-Ph. and Rodriguez-Ferran, A. (2004), "Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Methods", Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, 1, Fundamentals.
  14. Ferziger, J.H. and Peric, M. (2002), Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, Springer-Verlag.
  15. Garg, V.K. and Dukkipati, R.V. (1984), Dynamics of Railway Vehicle Systems, Canada: Academic Press.
  16. Guo, W.W., Xia, H. and Zhang, N. (2013), "Dynamic responses of Tsing Ma Bridge and running safety of trains subjected to Typhoon York", Int. J. Rail Transportation, 1(3), 181-192.
  17. Herbsta A.H., Mulda T.W. and Efraimsson G. (2014), "Aerodynamic prediction tools for high-speed trains", Int. J. Rail Transportation, 2(1), 50-58.
  18. Hirt, C.W., Amsden, A.A. and Cook, J.L. (1974), "An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian computing method for all flow speeds", J. Comput. Physics, 14(3), 227-253.
  19. Jin, X.S., Xiao, X.B., Ling, L., Zhou, L. and Xiong, J.Y. (2013), "Study on safety boundary for high-speed train running in severe environments", Int. J. Rail Transportation, 1(1-2), 87-108.
  20. Khier, W. and Le Devehat, E. (1997), CFD Methodology, TRANSAERO (Transient Aerodynamics for Railway System Optimisation) WP1 Technical Report, Report Ref. 1M7S23T1.DA.
  21. Khier, W., Breuer, M. and Durst, F. (2000), "Flow structure around trains under side wind conditions: a numerical study", Comput. Fluids, 29(2), 179-195.
  22. Khier, W., Breuer ,M. and Durst, F. (2002), "Numerical computation of 3-D turbulent flow around high-speed trains under side wind conditions", TRANSAERO - A European Initiative on Transient Aerodynamics for Railway System Optimisation Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design (NNFM), Springer-Verlag.
  23. Li, Y.F. and Tian, H.Q. (2012), "Lateral aerodynamic performance and speed limits of double-deck container vehicles with different structures", J. Central South Univ., 19(7), 2061-2066.
  24. Li, Y.L., Qiang, S.Z., Liao, H.L. and Xu, Y.L. (2005), "Dynamics of wind-rail vehicle-bridge systems", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 93(6), 483-507.
  25. Li, Y.L., Hu, P., Xu, Y.L., Zhang, M.J. and Liao, H.L. (2014), "Wind loads on a moving vehicle-bridge deck system by wind-tunnel model test", Wind Struct., 19(2), 145-167.
  26. Li, Y.L., Xiang, H.Y., Wang, B., Xu, Y.L. and Qiang, S.Z. (2013), "Dynamic analysis of wind-vehicle-bridge system with two trains interaction", Adv. Struct. Eng., 16(10), 1663-1670.
  27. Nadal, M. J. (1908), "Locomotives a vapeur, collection encyclopedie scientifique", Biblioteque de Mecanique Appliquee et Genie, 186, 56-67.
  28. Noh, W.F. (1964), "CEL: A time-dependent two-space dimensional coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian code", Methods Comput. Physics, 3, 123-144.
  29. Rezvani, M.A. and Mohebbi, M. (2014), "Numerical calculations of aerodynamic performance for ATM train at crosswind conditions", Wind Struct., 18(5), 529-548.
  30. Sterling, M., Quinn, A.D. and Hargreaves, D.M., Chelic, F., Sabbionic, E, Tomasinic, G., Delaunayd, D., Bakera, C.J. and Morvane, H. (2010), "A comparison of different methods to evaluate the wind induced forces on a high sided lorry", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 98(1), 10-20.
  31. Sun, Y.Q. and Dhanasekar, M. (2002), "A dynamic model for the vertical interaction of the rail track and wagon system", Int. J. Solids Struct., 39(5), 1337-1359.
  32. Suzuki, M., Nakade, K. and Fujimoto, H. (2001), "Study on interaction between vehicle dynamics and aerodynamic force on high speed train in tunnel", RTRI Report., 15(5), 19-24.
  33. Xia, H., Guo, W.W., Zhang, N. and Sun, G.J. (2008), "Dynamic analysis of a train-bridge system under wind action", Comput. Struct., 86(19-20), 1845-1855.
  34. Xu, Y.L. and Ding, Q.S. (2006), "Interaction of railway vehicles with track in crosswinds", J. Fluid. Struct., 22(3), 295-314.
  35. Xu, Y. L. (2013), Wind effects on cable-supported bridges, Singapore, John Wiley & Sons.
  36. Yang, J.Z., Bi, H.Q. and Zhai, W.M. (2009), "Dynamic analysis of train in cross-winds with the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method", J. China Railway Soc., 31(2), 120-124 (In Chinese).
  37. Zhai, W.M. (1996), "Two simple fast integration methods for large-scale dynamic problems in engineering", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 39(24), 4199-4214.<4199::AID-NME39>3.0.CO;2-Y
  38. Zhai, W.M. (2015), Vehicle-Track Coupled Dynamics, 4th Ed., Beijing: Science Press (In Chinese).
  39. Zhai, W.M., Cai, C.B. and Guo, S.Z. (1996), "Coupling model of vertical and lateral vehicle/track interactions", Vehicle Syst. Dyn., 26(1), 61-79.
  40. Zhai, W.M. and Wang, K.Y. (2006), "Lateral interactions of trains and tracks on small-radius curves: simulation and experiment", Vehicle Syst. Dyn., 44(Supplement 1), 520-530.
  41. Zhai, W.M. and Wang, K.Y. (2010), "Lateral hunting stability of railway vehicles running on elastic track structures", J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn. - ASME, 5(4), 041009-1-9.
  42. Zhai, W.M., Wang, K.Y. and Cai, C.B. (2009), "Fundamentals of vehicle-track coupled dynamics", Vehicle Syst. Dyn., 47(11), 1349-1376.
  43. Zhai, W.M. and Sun, X. (1994), "A detailed model for investigating vertical interaction between railway vehicle and track", Vehicle Syst. Dyn., 23(Supplement 1), 603-615.

Cited by

  1. Multi-objective aerodynamic optimization design of high-speed train head shape vol.18, pp.11, 2017,
  2. Simulation of train–bridge interaction under wind loads: a rigid-flexible coupling approach 2017,
  3. A multiobjective aerodynamic optimization design of a high-speed train head under crosswinds 2017,
  4. A model for vehicle–track random interactions on effects of crosswinds and track irregularities pp.1744-5159, 2018,