DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Predictors of Knowledge Level and Awareness towards Breast Cancer among Turkish Females

  • Aydogan, Umit (Department of Family Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Doganer, Yusuf C. (Turkish Military Academy, Primary Care Examination Center) ;
  • Kilbas, Zafer (Department of General Surgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Rohrer, James E. (Mayo Clinic) ;
  • Sari, Oktay (Department of General Surgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Usterme, Necibe (Department of Family Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Yuksel, Servet (Department of Family Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Akbulut, Halil (Department of Family Medicine, 4th Air Force Base) ;
  • Balkan, Salih M. (Department of General Surgery, TOBB ETU Hospital) ;
  • Saglam, Kenan (Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Tufan, Turgut (Department of General Surgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy)
  • Published : 2015.02.04

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most-common malignancy of women worldwide. Though there are differences among developed and developing countries, BC remains the most common cancer type of women in Turkey. Objective: This study aimed to identify the level of knowledge, awareness, and their potential predictors towards BC in Ankara, Turkey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on 376 females attending a breast health outpatient clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge level about BC and predictors effecting its level. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean age of the participants was $46.2{\pm}9.93$ (22-75). The majority (92.6 %) were married; 41.5% were educated less than nine years. Most of the women were housewives (82.7%) and, were living in an urban region (86.4%). Predictors of effecting responses to seven knowledge and awareness questions about BC varied from demographic features including older age groups, higher educational levels, being married, living in an urban area, being employee, smoking, having greater BMI to additional attributes associated breast health such as the increased number of births, applying for the purpose of control, positive family history of breast diseases, any diagnoses of breast diseases and performing BSE practice. Conclusions: It was determined that females in Turkey have better knowledge of BC than other developing countries even though it is not at the desired level. These findings revealed that females should be more informed about BC risk factors, prognosis and treatments by primary health-care providers to counteract the ascending burden of this disease.

Keywords

Breast cancer;female;knowledge;awareness;Turkey

References

  1. Alam AA (2006). Knowledge of breast cancer and its risk and protective factors among women in Riyadh. Ann Saudi Med, 26, 272-7.
  2. Altunkan H, Akin B, Ege E (2008). Awareness and practice of breast self examination among 20-60 years women. The J Breast Health, 4, 84-91.
  3. American Cancer Society (2013). What are the key statistics about breast cancer? [Online]. Available: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer- keystatistics [Accessed July 24 2014].
  4. Anderson BO, Shyyan R, Eniu A, et al (2006). Breast cancer in limited-resource countries: an overview of the Breast Health Global Initiative 2005 guidelines. Breast J, 12, 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1075-122X.2006.00199.x
  5. Avci IA (2008). Factors associated with breast self-examination practices and beliefs in female workers at a Muslim community. European J Oncol Nurs, 12, 127-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2007.11.006
  6. Begum P, Richardson CE, Carmichael AR (2009). Obesity in post menopausal women with a family history of breast cancer: prevalence and risk awareness. Int Semin Surg Oncol, 6, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7800-6-1
  7. Bener A, El Ayoubi HR, Moore MA, et al (2009). Do we need to maximise the breast cancer screening awareness? Experience with an endogamous society with high fertility. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 599-604.
  8. Bray F, Ren JS, Masuyer E, et al (2013). Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. Int J Cancer, 132, 1133-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27711
  9. Chioma C, Asuzu S (2007). Knowledge, attitude and practice of self breast examination among the female students of the university of Ibadan, Nigeria. Pakistan J Social Sci, 4, 400-2.
  10. Dandash KF, Al-Mohaimeed A (2007). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding breast cancer and screening in female teachers of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia. Int J Health Sci, 1, 61-71.
  11. Discigil G, Sensoy N, Tekin N, et al (2007). Arastirma Yazisi Meme Sagligi: Ege Bolgesinde Yasayan Bir Grup Kadinin Bilgi, Davranis Ve Uygulama. Marmara Med J, 20, 29-36.
  12. Donnelly TT, Al Khater AH, Al-Bader SB, et al (2013). Beliefs and attitudes about breast cancer and screening practices among Arab women living in Qatar: a cross-sectional study. BMC Womens Health, 13, 49. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-13-49
  13. Dundar PE, Ozmen D, Ozturk B, et al (2006). The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in western Turkey. BMC Cancer, 6, 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-6-43
  14. Fishman A (2010). The effects of parity, breastfeeding, and infertility treatment on the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a review. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 20, 31-3. https://doi.org/10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181f60d4d
  15. Gilani SI, Khurram M, Mazhar T, et al (2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice of a Pakistani female cohort towards breast cancer. J Pak Med Assoc, 60, 205-8.
  16. Golbasi Z, Kutlar Z, Akdeniz H (2007). The effect of education given by nursing students on womens' knowledge and practice of breast cancer/breast self examination in a public training center. J Breast Health, 3, 53-7.
  17. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2012. Latest world cancer statistics [Online]. Available: http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2013/pdfs/pr223_E.pdf [Accessed July 25 2014].
  18. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
  19. Khalil RB (2013). Attitudes, beliefs and perceptions regarding truth disclosure of cancer-related information in the Middle East: A review. Palliative and Supportive Care, 11, 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1478951512000107
  20. Khazaee-Pool M, Montazeri A, Majlessi F, et al (2014). Breast cancer-preventive behaviors: exploring Iranian women's experiences. BMC Womens Health, 14, 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-14-41
  21. Kosgeroglu N, Ayranci U, Ozerdogan N, et al (2011). Knowledge of women on early diagnosis methods and risk factors for breast cancer in a province of Western Turkey: A descriptive study. Pakistan J Med Sci, 27, 646-50.
  22. Kurtuncu M, Akhan LU, Celik S, et al (2014). Cancer awareness among university students in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 4289-94. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.10.4289
  23. Lipkus IM, Biradavolu M, Fenn K, et al (2001). Informing women about their breast cancer risks: truth and consequences. Health Commun, 13, 205-26. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327027HC1302_5
  24. Mafuvadze B, Manguvo A, He J, et al (2013). Breast Cancer Knowledge and Awareness among High School and College Students in Mid-Western USA. Intern J Sci Edu, 3, 144-58.
  25. Mandelblatt J, Kaufman E, Sheppard VB, et al (2005). Breast cancer prevention in community clinics: will low-income Latina patients participate in clinical trials? Prev Med, 40, 611-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.004
  26. Narod SA (2006). Modifiers of risk of hereditary breast cancer. Oncogene, 25, 5832-6. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1209870
  27. Nekhlyudov L, Fletcher SW (2001). Is it time to stop teaching breast self-examination? CMAJ, 164, 1851-2.
  28. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, et al (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74
  29. Powe BD, Finnie R (2003). Cancer fatalism: the state of the science. Cancer Nurs, 26, 66-7.
  30. Radi SM (2013). Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4307-12. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.7.4307
  31. Rosenstock I.M. (1966). Why People use health services. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 44, 94-124. https://doi.org/10.2307/3348967
  32. Saadi A, Bond B, Percac-Lima S (2012). Perspectives on preventive health care and barriers to breast cancer screening among Iraqi women refugees. J Immigr Minor Health, 14, 633-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-011-9520-3
  33. Turkey Statistical Institute. Statistical Yearbook of Turkey (TUIK) (2012) [Online]. Available: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/yillik/yillik.pdf. [Accessed July 25, 2014].
  34. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011). Breast Cancer: Prevention and Control [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/index.html [Accessed July 23, 2014].
  35. Yilmaz D, Bebis H, Ortabag T (2013). Determining the awareness of and compliance with breast cancer screening among Turkish residential women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3281-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3281

Cited by

  1. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Breast Cancer Referred to Omitted Cancer Research Center in Iran vol.16, pp.12, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.12.5081
  2. An Empirical Study on Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage among Malaysian Cancer Patients vol.16, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6237
  3. Staged Improvement in Awareness of Disease for Elderly Cancer Patients in Southern China vol.16, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6311
  4. Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Breast Cancer in a Rural District of Central India vol.16, pp.16, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.6863
  5. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Knowledge and Awareness Among Hospital Staff in a Women Heath Hospital in Turkey vol.32, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-015-0981-2
  6. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the breast cancer awareness measure (BCAM) questionnaire vol.7, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1740