- Volume 16 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Level and Evaluation of Tumor Marker CA-125 in Ovarian Cancer Patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
- Ahmad, Bashir (Centre for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar) ;
- Nawaz, Seema (Centre for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar) ;
- Ali, Sajid (Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University of Mardan) ;
- Bashir, Shumaila (Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar) ;
- Mahmood, Nourin (Centre for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar) ;
- Gul, Bushra (Centre for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar)
- Published : 2015.02.04
Background: Due to the increase in morbidity and mortality rate, cancer has become an alarming threat to the human population worldwide. Since cancer is a progressive disorder, timely diagnosis is necessary to prevent/stop cancer from progressing to a severe stage. In Khyber Paktunkhwa, Pakistan, many tumors are diagnosed with endoscopy and biopsy; rare studies exist regarding the diagnosis and evaluation of ovarian cancer, based on tumor markers like CA-125. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate and evaluate levels of CA-125 in hospitalized ovarian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 63 admitted patients having ovarian cancer by biopsy were included. The level of CA-125 was determined in the blood of these patients using ELISA technique. Results: Out of 63 patients, the level of CA-125 was high in 52%. The affected individuals were more in the group of 40-60 and the level of CA-125 was comparatively higher in patients having moderately differentiated histology than those having well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumor histology. Moreover, the highest level of CA-125 was present among the patients having serous subtype of carcinoma and the common stage of carcinoma was stage II followed by stage III, I and IV. Conclusions: CA-125 level was high in more than 50% of the total patients. Moreover, CA-125 elevation was more common in serous subtype and stage II cancer patients.
- Bian J, Li B, Kou XJ, Liu TZ, Ming L (2013). Clinical significance of combined detection of serum tumor markers in diagnosis of patients with ovarian cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6241-3. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.6241
- Devan SM, Pailoor J, Sthaneshwar P, Narayanan V (2013). Pattern of tissue expression of CA-125 and HE4 in primary epithelial ovarian tumours and correlation with serum CA-125 levels. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4545-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4545
- Fritsche HA, Bast RC (1998). CA-125 in ovarian cancer; Advance and Controversy. Clin Chem, 7, 1370-80.
- Futreal PA, Coin L, Marshall M, et al (2004). A census of human cancer genes. Nature Rev Cancer, 4, 177-83. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc1299
- Gallagar, D, J.; konner, A, J; Bell-mcguinn, et al (2011). Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer; a multivariant analysis in corporating BRCA mutation status and platinum sensitivity. Ann Oncol, 22, 1127-32. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdq577
- Hanif M, Zaidi P, Kamal S, Hameed A (2009). Institution-based cancer incidence in a local population in Pakistan: nine year data analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 227-230.
- Jacobs I J, Menon U (2004). Progress and challenges in screening for early detection of ovarian cancer. Molec Cell Proteomics, 3, 355-66. https://doi.org/10.1074/mcp.R400006-MCP200
- Junejo N, Shaikh F, Mumtaz F (2010). Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of ovarian tumors at gynecology ward, 9, 30-32.
- Kanavos P (2006). The rising burden of cancer in the developing world. Annals Oncol, 17, 15-23.
- Arun-Muthuvel V, Jaya V (2014). Pre-operative evaluation of ovarian tumors by risk of malignancy index, CA125 and ultrasound. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2929-32. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.6.2929
- Bhatt A N, Mathor R, Farooque A, Verma A, Dwarakanath B S (2010). Cancer biomarkers - Current perspectives. Indian J of Med Res, 132, 129-149.
- Karadag B, Kocak M, Kayikcioglu F, et al (2014). Risk for malignant and borderline ovarian neoplasms following basic preoperative evaluation by ultrasonography, ca125 level and age. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 8489-93. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.19.8489
- Kobel M, Boyd N, Mckinney S, et al (2008). Ovarian carcinoma subtypes are different disease. Implication Biomarker Studies, 5, 749-1760.
- Lawicik S, Bedkowska GE, Szumarska EG, et al (2013). The plasma concentration of VEGF, HE4 and CA-125 as new biomarkers panel in different stages and subtypes of epithelial ovarian tumor. J Ovarian Res, 6, 1757-2215.
- Markman, M (1997). The role of CA-125 in the management of ovarian cancer. Oncologist, 2, 6-9.
- Muazzam I A, Rizvi F, Siddiqui N, et al (2010). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci, 6, 85-90.
- Muccluggagee, W G (2011). Morphological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma: a review with emphasis on new developments and pathogenesis. Pathology, 5, 420-32.
- Nair R R, Jhoson J K (2008). A dictionary to tumor markers and the methods of estimation. Advanced Biotechnol, 5, 22-32.
- Park S, Bae J, Nam BH, Yoo KY (2008). Aetiology of cancer in Asia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 371-80.
- Sarwar S, Siddiqui N, Khokhar R A (2006). Epithelial ovarian cancer at a cancer hospital in a developing country. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 595-8.
- Skatas S J, Menon U, MacDonald N, et al (2003). Calculation of the risk of ovarian cancer from serial CA-125 values for preclinical detection in postmenopausal women. J Clin Oncol, 21, 206-10. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.02.955
- Soslow, R A (2008). Histological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma: An Overview. Intern J Gynecol Pathol, 27, 161-74.
- Xu, X, Wang F, Jia L, Zhou Y, et al (2013). Nadir CA-125 level as prognosis indicator of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. J Ovarian Res, 1, 6-31.
- Yancik, R (1993). Ovarian cancer: Age Contrasts in incidence, Histology, Disease stage at Diagnosis, and Mortality. Cancer supplement, 71, 517-523.
- Yin BWT, Lloyd KO (2001). Molecular Cloning of the CA125 Ovarian Cancer Antigen. The J Biological Chemistry, 276, 27371-5. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M103554200
- Zhang B, Cai FF, Zhong XY (2011). An overview of biomarkers for the ovarian cancer diagnosis. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 158, 119-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.04.023
- MicroRNA-17-5p induces drug resistance and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells by targeting PTEN signaling vol.22, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40709-015-0035-2