- Volume 16 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Descriptive Study on Selected Risk Factors and Histopathology of Breast Carcinoma in a Tertiary Care Centre in Kerala, India with Special Reference to Women Under 40 Years Old
- Varughese, Ashley Ann (Department of Pathology, Government Medical College) ;
- Poothiode, Usha (Department of Pathology, Government Medical College) ;
- Manjula, V.D. (Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College)
- Published : 2015.02.04
Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Kerala, South India, with the incidence increasing in the past two decades, also in young women. However, there are limited data regarding the burden of disease, its epidemiology and histopathological characteristics in the state. Materials and Methods: This desciptive study covered 303 breast cancers evaluated during the period of December 2011 to August 2013 in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Kottayam.The patients were also interviewed regarding selected risk factors. Results: The majority of the cases were 41-60 years of age with a mean at presentation of 53 years. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common subtype, followed by pure mucinous carcinoma and then lobular carcinoma. Of the cases, 6.6% were nullipara and 52.8% had fewer than or equal to 2 children. Median age at first child birth was 23 years (national value-19.8 years). A significant proportion (15%) had family history of breast cancer. Some 13.5%(41 cases) comprised the young breast cancer group (
- Anders CK, Johnson R, Litton J, et al (2009). Breast cancer Before age 40 years. Semin Oncol, 36, 237-49. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2009.03.001
- Anderson WF, Pfeiffer WM, Dores GM, et al (2006). Comparison of age distribution patterns for different histopathologic types of breast carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, 1899-905. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0191
- Anderson WF, Reiner AS, Matsuno RK, et al (2007). Shifting breast cancer trends in the United States. J Clin Oncol, 25, 3923-9. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.11.6079
- Babu GR, Lakshmi SB, Thiyagarajan JA (2013). Epidemiological correlates of breast cancer in South India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5077-83. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.9.5077
- Balasubramaniam SM, Rotti SB, Vivekanandam S (2013) Risk factors of female breast carcinoma: A case control study at Puducherry. Indian J Cancer, 50, 65-70. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.112307
- Chauhan A, Subba S, Menezes RG, et al (2011). Younger women are affected by breast cancer in South India-a hospital-based descriptive study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 709.
- Das S, Sen S, Mukherjee A, et al (2012). Risk factors of breast cancer among women in eastern India: A tertiary hospital based case control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4979-81. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4979
- Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al (2012) Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancerbase No. 11 [internet]. Lyon, France: international agency for research on cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed on 10/8/2014.
- Ghiasvand R, Maram ES, Tahmaseb S, Tabatabaee SHR (2011). Risk factors for breast cancer among young women in Southern Iran. Int J Cancer, 129, 1443-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25748
- Harrison PA, Srinivasan K, Binu V, Vidyasagar M, Nair S (2010). Risk factors for breast cancer among women attending a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Int J Collab Res Intl Med Public Health, 4, 109-16
- Jayalekshmi P, Varughese SC, Nair M, et al (2009). A nested casecontrol study of female breast cancer in Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 241-6.
- Kaur N, Attam A, Saha S, Bhargava SK (2011). Breast cancer risk profile in Indian women. JIMSA, 24, 163-5.
- Keramatinia A, Mousavi-Jarrahi SH, Hiteh M, et al (2014). Trends in incidence of breast cancer among women under 40 in Asia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1387-90. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1387
- Khokhar A (2012). Breast cancer in India: where do we stand and where do we go? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4861-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4861
- Leong SP, Shen ZZ, Liu TJ, et al (2010). Is breast cancer the same disease in Asian and Western countries? World J Surg Oncol, 34, 2308-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-010-0683-1
- MacMahon B, Cole F, Lin TM, et al (1970). Age at first birth and breast cancer risk. Bull WHO, 43, 209-21
- Mathew A, Pandey M, Rajan B (2004). Do younger women with non-metastatic and non-inflammatory breast carcinoma have poor prognosis? World J Surg Oncol, 2, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-2-2
- McTiernan A (2003). Behavioral risk factors in breast cancer: can risk be modified? Oncologist, 8, 326-34. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.8-4-326
- Meshram II, Hiwarkar PA, Kulkarni PN (2009). Reproductive risk factors for breast cancer: a case control study online. J Hlth Allied Scs, 8, 5
- Mousavi-Jarrrahi SH, Kasaeian A, Mansori K (2013). Addressing the younger age at onset in breast cancer patients in Asia: an age-period-cohort analysis of fifty years of quality data from the international agency for research on cancer. ISRN Oncol, 2013, 429862.
- National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) (2007). India, international institute for population sciences (IIPS) and macro international; 1, 192-222. Available from: http://www.nfhsindia.org (accessed on 5/7/2014).
- National Family Health Survey3 (NFHS-3) (2006). India, Kerala report 2005-2006. Mumbai. International institute for population studies (IIPS) and ORC macro. Available from: http://hetv.org/india/nfhs/nfhs3/NFHS-3-Kerala-state-report.pdf (accessed on 5/72014).
- Nigam JS, Yadav P, Sood N (2014). A retrospective study of clinicpathological spectrum of carcinoma breast in West Delhi, India. South Asian J Cancer, 3, 179-81. https://doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.136804
- Pakseresht S, Ingle G, Bahadur A, et al (2009). Risk factors with breast cancer among women in Delhi. Indian J Cancer, 46, 132. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.49151
- Saxena S, Rekhi B, Bansal A, et al (2005). Clinico-morphological patterns of breast cancer including family history in a New Delhi hospital, India-A cross-sectional study. World J Surg Oncol, 3, 67. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-3-67
- Sidoni A, Cavaliere A, Bellezza G, et al (2006). Breast cancer in young women: clinicopathological features and biological specificity. Breast, 12, 247-50.
- Sofi GN, Sofi JN, Nadeem R, et al (2012). Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer in relation to age, histological grade, size of lesion and lymph node involvement. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5047-52. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5047
- Subramanian P, Oranye NO, Masri AM, et al (2013). Breast cancer knowledge and screening behaviour among women with a positive family history: a cross sectional study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6783-90. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.6783
- Thangjam S, Laishram RS, Debnath K (2014). Breast carcinoma in young females below the age of 40 years : A histopathological perspective. South Asian J Cancer, 3, 97-100. https://doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.130441
- Tehranian N, Shobeiri F, Pour FH, Hagizadeh E (2010). Risk factors for breast cancer in Iranian women aged less than 40 years. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 1723-5.
- Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Breast Cancer Referred to Omitted Cancer Research Center in Iran vol.16, pp.12, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.12.5081
- Alteration of Thyroid Function in Indian HER 2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy vol.16, pp.17, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7701
- Health Beliefs of Nursing Faculty Students about Breast Cancer and Self Breast Examination vol.16, pp.17, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7731
- Expression of DDR1 and DVL1 in Invasive Ductal and Lobular Breast Carcinoma does not Correlate with Histological Type, Grade and Hormone Receptor Status vol.16, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.6.2385
- Pedigree and BRCA gene analysis in breast cancer patients to identify hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality of disease in Indian population vol.39, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1177/1010428317694303