Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Mammography in Kazakhstan - Staging Results of Breast Cancer with Double Reading

  • Published : 2015.02.04


While mammography has been used for diagnosis of breast cancer in Kazakhstan for a long period, published data are very limited. Recently stress has been placed on increasing the accuracy by double reading of mammograms. Here we provide an overview of breast cancer screening in the different regions of Kazakhstan with data on the stages of cancers detected. A total 459,816 women aged 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60 years were screened in 2012 and 379,903 in the first 9 months of 2013. Clear differences in levels of detection were noted between urban and rural residents, the latter demonstrating lower rates for both screening and cancer detection. Women aged 50 were more likely to undergo screening than their counterparts aged 60. While there were no clear relationships evident between screening rates and stage or numbers of breast cancers observed, this might be due to a number of complicating factors like geographical variation in risk factors as well as ethnicity. Future analyses should focus on the efficacy of mammography in Kazakhstan to reduce mortality.


  1. Bilyalova Z, Igissinov N, Moore M, et al (2012). Epidemiological evaluation of breast cancer in ecological areas of Kazakhstan--association with pollution emissions. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 2341-4.
  2. Caumo F, Brunelli S, Zorzi M, et al (2011). Benefits of double reading of screening mammograms: retrospective study on a consecutive series. Radiol Med, 116, 575-83.
  3. Cherenkov VG, Petrov AB, Ivanchenko VV, Tverezovskii SA, Frumkin BB (2013). Diagnosis and morphologic verification of tumors detected by mammography screening. Vopr Onkol, 59, 118-22. (in Russian).
  4. Chukmaitov A, Wan TT, Menachemi N, Cashin C (2008). Breast cancer knowledge and attitudes toward mammography as predictors of breast cancer preventive behavior in Kazakh, Korean, and Russian women in Kazakhstan. Int J Public Health, 53, 123-30.
  5. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al (2012). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancerbase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France.
  6. Igisinov N, Kokteubaeva N, Kudaibergenova I (2005). Epidemiology of breast cancer in females of reproductive age in Kyrgyzstan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 6, 37-40.
  7. Igissinov S, Igissinov N, Moore MA, et al (2011). Trends of prevalent cancer incidences in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan.
  8. Igissinov S, Igissinov N, Moore MA, et al (2012). Component analysis of the incidence of malignant tumors of the population of Kazakhstan from 1999 to 2010. Oncol Radiol Kazakhstan, 1, 3-8.
  9. Moradi M, Ganji K, Teyfouri N, Kolahdoozan F (2013). Performance of double reading mammography in an Iranian population and its effect on patient outcome. Iran J Radiol, 10, 51-5.
  10. Beckmann KR, Roder DM, Hiller JE, Farshid G, Lynch JW (2014). Influence of mammographic screening on breast cancer incidence trends in South Australia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3105-12.
  11. Poddubnaya I, Axel E, Kipriyanova N, et al (2007). Component analysis of cancer incidence population (Yakutsk, 1990-2003). Siberian J Oncol, 2, 55-63.
  12. Shi XJ, Au WW, Wu KS, Chen LX, Lin K (2014). Mortality characteristics and prediction of female breast cancer in China from 1991 to 2011. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2785-91.
  13. Starinsky V, Poddubnaya I, Axel E, et al (2005). Component analysis of malignant tumors of the population of the republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in 1989-2001. Russian J Oncol, 1, 38-41.
  14. Toleutay U, Reznik V, Kalmatayeva Z, Smigelskas K (2013). Risk factors of breast cancer in Kyzylorda oblast of Kazakhstan: a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5961-4.
  15. Wang FL, Chen F, Yin H, et al (2013). Effects of age, breast density and volume on breast cancer diagnosis: a retrospective comparison of sensitivity of mammography and ultrasonography in China's rural areas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 2277-82.
  16. Wang JT, Chang LM, Song X, et al (2014). Comparison of primary breast cancer size by mammography and sonography. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 9759-61.
  17. Wu LZ, Han RQ, Zhou JY, et al (2014). Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in Jiangsu, China. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2727-32.
  18. Yoo KB, Kwon JA, Cho E, et al (2013). Is mammography for breast cancer screening cost-effective in both Western and Asian countries?: results of a systematic review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4141-9.
  19. Zakharova NA (2013). Experience in the implementation of screening program for early detection of breast cancer in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. Vopr Onkol, 59, 382-5 (in Russian).