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Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

  • Yulistiani, Dwi ;
  • Jelan, Z.A. ;
  • Liang, J.B. ;
  • Yaakub, H. ;
  • Abdullah, N.
  • Received : 2014.05.28
  • Accepted : 2014.10.08
  • Published : 2015.04.01

Abstract

A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake ($76.8{\pm}4.2g/kg\;BW^{0.75}$) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility ($55.3{\pm}1.22$; $69.9{\pm}0.85$; $46.3{\pm}1.65%$ respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets ($3.0{\pm}0.32g/d$). In contrast, the rumen ammonia ($NH_3-N$) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The $NH_3-N$ concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.

Keywords

Mulberry (Morus alba);Fermentable Energy;Fermentable Protein;Feed Supplementation;Sheep

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