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The effect of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms on blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles following the supplementation of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) juice in South Korean subclinical hypertensive patients

  • Han, Jeong-Hwa (Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Life Science and Nano-technology, Hannam University) ;
  • Lee, Hye-Jin (Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Life Science and Nano-technology, Hannam University) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Seok (R&D Center, Pulmuone Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kang, Myung-Hee (Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Life Science and Nano-technology, Hannam University)
  • Received : 2014.09.01
  • Accepted : 2014.11.19
  • Published : 2015.02.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) forms a multigene family of phase II detoxification enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This study examines whether daily supplementation of kale juice can modulate blood pressure (BP), levels of lipid profiles, and blood glucose, and whether this modulation could be affected by the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 84 subclinical hypertensive patients showing systolic BP over 130 mmHg or diastolic BP over 85 mmHg received 300 ml/day of kale juice for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected on 0-week and 6-week in order to evaluate plasma lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol) and blood glucose. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in all patients regardless of their GSTM1 or GSTT1 polymorphisms after kale juice supplementation. Blood glucose level was decreased only in the GSTM1-present genotype, and plasma lipid profiles showed no difference in both the GSTM1-null and GSTM1-present genotypes. In the case of GSTT1, on the other hand, plasma HDL-C was increased and LDL-C was decreased only in the GSTT1-present type, while blood glucose was decreased only in the GSTT1-null genotype. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the supplementation of kale juice affected blood pressure, lipid profiles, and blood glucose in subclinical hypertensive patients depending on their GST genetic polymorphisms, and the improvement of lipid profiles was mainly greater in the GSTT1-present genotype and the decrease of blood glucose was greater in the GSTM1-present or GSTT1-null genotypes.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

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