Relations of Postpartum Depression with Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Preterm Infants and Mothers

미숙아와 어머니의 인구사회학적, 임상적 특성과 산후우울과의 관련성

  • Bang, Kyung-Sook (College of Nursing and The Research Institute of Nursing Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kang, Hyun-Ju (College of Nursing, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kwon, Mi-Kyung (Department of Nursing, Catholic Kwandong University)
  • 방경숙 (서울대학교 간호대학.간호과학연구소) ;
  • 강현주 (서울대학교 간호대학) ;
  • 권미경 (가톨릭관동대학교 간호학과)
  • Received : 2014.05.20
  • Accepted : 2014.11.04
  • Published : 2015.01.31


Purpose: This study was conducted to explore relationships of postpartum depression with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of preterm infants and mothers. Methods: Participants were the mothers of 80 premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Postpartum depression was measured using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Clinical characteristics were examined through the medical records. The physiological state for the infants was evaluated using the revised Neurobiologic Risk Score (NBRS). Data were analyzed using the t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Average for EPDS was $9.75{\pm}5.06$, and 30% of the participants were at high risk for postpartum depression. There were significant differences in postpartum depression according to mother's education level (F=3.493, p=.035), economic state (F=5.828, p=.004), multiple pregnancy (t=2.141, p=.037), chorioamnionitis (t=2.349, p=.021), oligohydramnios (t=-2.226, p=.029), broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (t=2.085, p=.040), germinal matrix hemorrhage (t=2.259, p=.027), and revised NBRS (t=-2.772, p=.007). There was a significant positive correlation between postpartum depression and number of health problem of infants (r=.252, p=.024) and revised NBRS (r=.316, p=.004). Conclusion: As 30% of the mothers with preterm infants were at high risk for postpartum depression, they require attention. When providing interventions, socioeconomic status as well as the physiological state of premature infants should be considered.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of korea


  1. Adewuya, A. O., Fatoye, F. O., Ola, B. A., Ijaodola, O. R., & Ibigbami, S. M. (2005). Sociodemographic and obstetric risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in Nigerian women. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 11(5), 353-358.
  2. Ahn, S. (2002). Postpartum Health: A comparison of mothers with preterm infants and mothers with fullterm infants. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 8(1), 7-19.
  3. Bang, K. S. (2011). Infants' temperament and health problems according to maternal postpartum depression. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 41(4), 444-450.
  4. Brazy, J. E., Goldstein, R. F., Oehler, J. M., Gustafson, K. E., & Thompson Jr, R. J. (1993). Nursery neurobiologic risk score: levels of risk and relationships with nonmedical factors. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 14(6), 375-380.
  5. Carter, J. D., Mulder, R. T., & Darlow, B. A. (2007). Parental stress in the NICU: The influence of personality, psychological, pregnancy and family factors. Personality and Mental Health, 1(1), 40-50.
  6. Choi, J., Lee, J., Cho, J., Lee, C., Jang, J., & Lee, K. (2010). Assessment of maternal and neonatal risk factors for postpartum depression. The Journal of Oriental Obsterics & Gynecology, 23(2), 106-115.
  7. Choi, Y., Bishai, D., & Minkovitz, C. S. (2009). Multiple births are a risk factor for postpartum maternal depressive symptoms. Pediatrics, 123(4), 1147-1154.
  8. Chourasia, N., Surianarayanan, P., Adhisivam, B., & Bhat, B. V. (2013). NICU Admissions and Maternal Stress Levels. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 80(5), 380-384.
  9. Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 150(6), 782-786.
  10. Dennis, C. L., & McQueen, K. (2009). The relationship between infant-feeding outcomes and postpartum depression: A qualitative systematic review. Pediatrics, 123, e736-e751.
  11. Fisher, J., & Stocky, A. (2003). Maternal perinatal mental health and multiple births: Implications for practice. Twin Research, 6(6), 506-513.
  12. Feeley, N., Zelkowitz, P., Cormier, C., Charbonneau, L., Lacroix, A., & Papageorgiou, A. (2011). Posttraumatic stress among mothers of very low birth weight infants at 6 months after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Applied Nursing Research, 24(2), 114-117.
  13. Gaillard, A., Le Strat, Y., Mandelbrot, L., Keïta, H., & Dubertret, C. (2013). Predictors of postpartum depression: Prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Psychiatry Research, 215(2), 341-346.
  14. Horowitz, J. A., Murphy, C. A., Gregory, K. E., & Wojcik, J. A. (2011). Community based screening initiative to identify mothers at risk for postpartum depression. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 40(1), 52-61.
  15. Hwang, H., Kim, H., Yoo, I., & Shin, H. (2013). Parenting stress in mothers of premature infants. Child Health Nursing Research, 19(1), 39-48.
  16. Hyung, W. J., & Choi, H. M. (2006). The relationship between idiopathic polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios and perinatal outcomes. Korean Journal of Perinatology, 17(3), 287-293.
  17. Kang, B., Jung, K., Hahn, W., Shim, K., Chang, J., & Bae, C. (2011). Regional analysis on the incidence of preterm and low birth weight infant and the current situation on the neonatal intensive care units in Korea, 2009. Journal of the Korean Society of Neonatology, 18(1), 70-75.
  18. Kim, E. S., Kim, E. Y., Lee, J. Y., Kim, J. K., Lee, H. J., Lee, S. H., et al. (2009). The effects of supportive nursing management on postpartum depression of mothers with premature infants. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research, 15(3), 157-170.
  19. Kim, J., Kim, J., Kim, B., Eun, D., Kim, H., Kim, J., et al. (2004). Psychosocial and obstetric factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. Korean Journal of Obsterics and Gynecology, 47(10), 1865-1871.
  20. Kim, M., Yang, H. S., & Kim, J. (2009). A study on agreements among screening tests and related factors with postpartum depression. Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 52(11), 1133-1143.
  21. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. (2011). Policy issues on birth outcomes from shifting trends in childbearing (Issue Brief No. 2011-37-3). Seoul: Author.
  22. Korja, R., Savonlahti, E., Ahlqvist-Bjorkroth, S., Stolt, S., Haataja, L., Lapinleimu, H., et al. (2008). Maternal depression is associated with mother- infant interaction in preterm infants. Acta Paediatrica, 97(6), 724-730.
  23. Lee, J. Y., & Ju, H. O. (2014). Predictors of early postpartum depression in mothers of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. Child Health Nursing Research, 20(2), 87-95.
  24. Lee, Y. J., Song, B. S., Song, T. B., & Choi, Y. Y. (2010). The effects of histologic chorioamnionitis and funisitis on outcome of very low birth weight infants. Korean Journal of Perinatology, 21(1), 66-73.
  25. Milgrom, J., Ericksen, J., Negri, L., Gemmill, A. W. (2005). Screening for postnatal depression in routine primary care: properties of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale in an Australian sample. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(9), 833-839.
  26. Milgrom, J., Gemmill, A. W., Bilszta, J. L., Hayes, B., Barnett, B., Brooks, J., et al. (2008). Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: A large prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108, 147-157.
  27. Samsung Medical Center. (2010). The survey on the actual conditions of neonatal intensive care units and analysis of survival rate of high-risk newborn infants (Issue Brief No. 10-11). Seoul: Author.
  28. Segre, L. S., O'Hara, M. W., Arndt, S., & Stuart, S. (2007). The prevalence of postpartum depression. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(4), 316-321.
  29. Statistics Korea. (2012, September 13). 2011 Cause of death statistics. Retrieved March 7, 2014, from
  30. Yeo, J. H. (2006). Postpartum depression and its predictors at six months postpartum. Journal of Korean Academy of Woman Health Nursing, 12(4), 355-362.