Predictors of Cancer Awareness among Older Adult Individuals in Jordan

  • Ahmad, Muayyad M. (Clinical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, The University of Jordan) ;
  • Al-Gamal, Ekhlas (Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, The University of Jordan)
  • 발행 : 2015.01.22


Background: Older age is associated with an increase in the incidence of cancer cases. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in older adults can be stressful because of health decline related to age, comorbidities and inadequate treatment for pain and other symptoms of the disease. This survey is one of the unique studies in Jordan and in the Arab world that aimed at exploring the predictors of older adult individuals awareness towards cancer. Materials and Methods: A stratified random sampling technique was followed to reach a representative sample of 753 participants. The questionnaire of the study consisted of parts regarding demographic variables, awareness about screening tests, and signs and symptoms of cancer. In addition, specific questions related to factors linked to cancer were included. Cross-sectional design was adopted with face-to-face interviews at the interviewees' households. Results: The mean age of the participants was about 63 years; around 44% of them are above the age of 65 years. 'Being convinced that having no health problem makes the individual feel safe and not at risk of getting cancer' was the major reason for not doing a routine health check-up. Conclusions: The low levels of awareness about cancer, as well as the low use of the screening methods were crucial outcomes of this study. Thus, raising the awareness among health care providers and policy makers in the country about older adults' perception of cancer is a high priority.


  1. Abu-Helalah M, Alshraideh H, Al-Hanaqta M, Arqoub K. (2014). Quality of life and psychological well-being of colorectal cancer survivors in jordan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 7653-7664.
  2. Ahmad, M. (2014). Perspectives on cancer in Jordan: national assessment. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
  3. Ahmad M, Alasad J, Nawafleh H (2010). Nursing care and quality of life among Jordanian patients with cancer. Leadership Health Services, 23, 233-43.
  4. Ahmad M, Al-Gamal E, Othman A, Nasrallah E (2011). Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards cancer prevention and care in Jordan. Amman: King Hussein Institute for Biotechnology and Cancer.
  5. Ahmad M, Daken L, Ahmad H (2014). Quality of life for patients in medical-surgical wards. Clinical Nursing Research, 23.
  6. Ahmad M, Dardas L, Ahmad H (2014). Cancer prevention and care: A national sample from Jordan. J Cancer Education.
  7. Ahmad M, Dardas L, Dardas L, Ahmad H (2014). Colorectal cancer in Jordan: Prevention and care. Global Health Promotion.
  8. Ahmad M, Musil C, Zauszniewski J, Resnick M (2005). Prostate cancer: appraisal, coping, and health status. J Gerontol Nurs, 31, 34-43.
  9. Akhtari-Zavare M, Ghanbari-Baghestan A, Latiff L, Matinnia N, Hoseini M (2014). Knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination practice among Iranian women in Hamedan, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6531-4.
  10. Bala M, Strzeszynski L, Cahill K (2012). Can tobacco control programmes that include a mass media campaign help to reduce levels of smoking among adults. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev, 6.
  11. Bidouei F, Abdolhosseini S, Jafarzadeh N, et al (2014). Knowledge and perception toward colorectal cancer screening in east of Iran. Int JHealth Policy Manag, 3, 11-15.
  12. Brown J, Kotz D, Michie S, et al (2014). How effective and cost-effective was the national mass media smoking cessation campaign 'Stoptober? Drug Alcohol Depend, 135, 52-8.
  13. Choe J, Tu S, Lim J, Burke N, Taylor V (2006). Heat in their intestines: colorectal cancer prevention beliefs among older Chinese. Americans. Ethn Dis, 16, 248-54.
  14. Dardas L, Ahmad M (2013). Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder. Stress Health.
  15. Dogan N, Toprak D (2014). Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 7569-73.
  16. DOS. (2014). Department of Statistics, Statistical year book. Amman: DOS. Retrieved August 30, 2014, from
  17. Grunfeld E, Ramirez A, Hunter M, Richards M (2002). Women's knowledge and beliefs regarding breast cancer. Br J Cancer, 86, 1373-8.
  18. Heidrich S, Egan J, Hengudomsub P, Randolph S (2006). Symptoms, symptom beliefs, and quality of life of older breast cancer survivors: a comparative study. Oncol Nurs Forum, 33, 315-22.
  19. IBM Corporation (2012). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. NY: IBM Corp.
  20. JCR. (2010). Cancer Incidence in Jordan. Amman: Ministry of Health, Directorate of Non-Communicable diseases.
  21. Jonathan P (2006). Embarrassment is a major barrier to colon cancer prevention, especially among women. Gastroenterol, 130, 1364-5.
  22. Jordan Breast Cancer Program (JBCP). (2012). Early detection and screening. Amman. Retrieved June 8, 2013, from
  23. Kyle, J., Forbat, L., and Hubbard, G. (2012). Cancer awareness among adolescents in Britain: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health J, 12.
  24. Linsell, L., Burgess, C., and Ramirez, A. (2008). Breast cancer awareness among older women. Br J Cancer, 99, 1221-5.
  25. Marmot M (2006). Cancer and health inequalities: An introduction to current evidence. Cancer Research UK Report.
  26. McCaffery K, Wardle J, Waller J (2003). Knowledge, attitudes, and behavioural intentions in relation to the early detection of colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom. PrevMed, 36, 525-35.
  27. Ministry of Health. (2011). National Health Strategy. Amman: MoH. Retrieved January 11, 2013, from
  28. Peltzer K, Pengpid S (2014). Awareness of Breast Cancer Risk among Female University Students from 24 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 7875-8.
  29. Raj S, Piang L, Nair K, et al (2012). Awareness Regarding risk factors, symptoms and treatment. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4057-62.
  30. Robb KA, Miles A, Wardle J (2004). Demographic and psychosocial factors associated with perceived risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13, 366-72.
  31. Salimzadeh H, Delavari A, Montazeri A, Mirzazadeh A (2012). Knowledge and practice of Iranians toward colorectal cancer and barriers to screening. Int J Prev Med, 13, 29-35.
  32. Tang T, Solomon L, McCracken M (2000). Cultural barriers to mammography, clinical breast exam, and breast self-exam among Chinese-American women 60 and older. Prev Med, 31, 575-83.
  33. Tarawneh M, Nimri O, Arkoob K, Zaghal M (2010). Cancer Incidence in Jordan-2010. Amman: Ministry of Health-Jordan.
  34. Tasci-Duran E, Koc S, Korkmaz M (2014). Turkish social attitudes towards to cancer prevention: a health belief model study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 7935-40.
  35. Tawalbeh L, Ahmad M (2014). The effect of cardiac education on knowledge and adherence to healthy lifestyle. Clin Nurs Res, 23, 245-58.
  36. Tawalbeh L, Ahmad MM (2013). Personal resource questionnaire: a systematic review. J Nurs Res, 21, 170-7.
  37. Ugnat A, Xie L, Morriss J, Semenciw R, Mao, Y (2004). Survival of women with breast cancer in Ottawa, Canada: variation with age, stage, histology, grade and treatment. Br J Cancer, 90, 1138-43.
  38. Valentinya C, Kemmlerb G, Staudera R (2012). Age, sex and gender impact multidimensional geriatric assessment in elderly cancer patients. J Geriatric Oncol, 3, 17-23.
  39. Wenchi C, Burnett J, Rowland N, Meropol L, Yi-Ting R (2002). Communication between physicians and older women with localized breast cancer: implications for treatment and patient satisfaction. J Clin Oncol, 20, 1008-16.
  40. WHO. (2011). WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. World Health Statistics. Retrieved 8 25, 2014.

피인용 문헌

  1. Degré de sensibilisation vis-à-vis du cancer dans les 12 gouvernorats de Jordanie : une étude comparative corrélationnelle vol.9, pp.1, 2015,
  2. Are Jordanian primary healthcare practitioners fulfilling their potential in cancer prevention and community health? Findings from a cross-sectional survey vol.7, pp.4, 2017,
  3. Colorectal Cancer Knowledge and Awareness Among University Students in a Caribbean Territory: a Cross-sectional Study pp.1543-0154, 2019,