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The Early Induction of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 and the Downregulation of Toll-like Receptors 7 and 9 Induce Tolerance in Costimulated Macrophages

  • Lee, Hyo-Ji (BIT Medical Convergence Graduate Program, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Keun-Cheol (Department of Biological Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Han, Jeong A (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Choi, Sun Shim (Department of Medical Biotechnology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Jung, Yu-Jin (BIT Medical Convergence Graduate Program, Kangwon National University)
  • Received : 2014.05.23
  • Accepted : 2014.10.21
  • Published : 2015.01.31

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9 transduce a cellular signal through the MyD88-dependent pathway and induce the production of inflammatory mediators against microbial nucleotide components. The repeated stimulation of TLR4 leads to endotoxin tolerance, but the molecular mechanisms of tolerance induced through the costimulation of individual TLR has not yet been established, although endosomal TLRs share signaling pathways with TLR4. In the present study, mouse macrophages were simultaneously stimulated with the TLR7 agonist, gardiquimod (GDQ), and the TLR9 agonist, CpG ODN 1826, to examine the mechanism and effector functions of macrophage tolerance. Compared with individual stimulation, the costimulation of both TLRs reduced the secretion of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 through the delayed activation of the NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway; notably, IL-10 remained unchanged in costimulated macrophages. This tolerance reflected the early induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), according to the detection of elevated TNF-${\alpha}$ secretion and restored NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling in response to the siRNA-mediated abrogation of SOCS-1 signaling. In addition, the restimulation of each TLRs using the same ligand significantly reduced the expression of both TLRs in endosomes. These findings revealed that the costimulation of TLR7 and TLR9 induced macrophage tolerance via SOCS-1, and the restimulation of each receptor or both TLR7 and TLR9 downregulated TLR expression through a negative feedback mechanisms that protects the host from excessive inflammatory responses. Moreover, the insufficient and impaired immune response in chronic viral infection might also reflect the repeated and simultaneous stimulation of those endosomal TLRs.

Keywords

inflammation;macrophage;NF-${\kappa}B$;SOCS-1;TLRs;tolerance

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

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