DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Overturning of precast RC columns in conditions of moderate ground shaking

  • Kafle, Bidur (Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne) ;
  • Lam, Nelson T.K. (Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne) ;
  • Lumantarna, Elisa (Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne) ;
  • Gad, Emad F. (Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology) ;
  • Wilson, John L. (Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology)
  • Received : 2013.12.22
  • Accepted : 2014.07.11
  • Published : 2015.01.25

Abstract

A simple method of assessing the risk of overturning of precast reinforced concrete columns is presented in this paper. The displacement-based methodology introduced herein is distinguished from conventional force-based codified methods of aseismic design of structures. As evidenced by results from field tests precast reinforced concrete columns can be displaced to a generous limit without sustaining damage and then fully recover from most of the displacement afterwards. Realistic predictions of the displacement demand of such (rocking) system in conjunction with the displacement capacity estimates enable fragility curves for overturning to be constructed. The interesting observation from the developed fragility curves is that the probability of failure of the precast soft-storey column decreases with increasing size of the column importantly illustrating the "size effect" phenomenon.

Keywords

rocking;risk of overturning;shake table;fragility curves;risk of failure

References

  1. AEES (2007) AS 1170.4-2007 Commentary: Structural Design Actions-Part 4 Earthquake Actions in Australia, Australian Earthquake Engineering Society (Ed. Wilson, J.L. & Lam, N.T.K.)
  2. Al Abadi, H., Lam, N.T.K. and Gad, E. (2006), "A simple displacement based model for predicting seismically induced overturning", J. Earthq. Eng., 10(6), 775-814. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460609350618
  3. Al-Abadi, H., Gad, E.F., Lam, N.T.K. and Petrolito, J. (2013), "A simple model for estimating shocks in unrestrained building contents in an earthquake", J. Earthq. Eng., 17(8), 1126-1140. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2013.794719
  4. Ali, M., Briet, R. and Chouw, N. (2013), "Dynamic response of mortar-free interlocking structures", Construct. Build. Mater., 42, 168-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.01.010
  5. AS 1170.4(2007), Structural Design Action-Part 4 Earthquake Actions, Standard Australia, Sydney.
  6. AS 3600 (2009), Concrete Structures, Standard Australia, Sydney.
  7. Carr, A.J. (2008), Ruaumoko, The Maori God of Volcanoes and Earthquake-Users Manual, University of Canterbury, New Zealand (student version).
  8. Cheng, C.T. (2007), "Energy dissipation in rocking bridge piers under free vibration tests", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 36(4), 503-518. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.640
  9. Dimitrakopoulos, Ε.G. and DeJong, M.J. (2012a), "Revisiting the rocking block: closed-form solutions and similarity laws", Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 468, 2294-2318 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2012.0026
  10. Dimitrakopoulos, Ε.G. and DeJong, M.J. (2012b), "Overturning of retrofitted rocking structures under pulse-type excitations", J. Eng. Mech., 138(8), 963-972 https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000410
  11. Doherty, K., Griffith, M.C., Lam, N.T.K. and Wilson, J.L. (2002), "Displacement-based seismic analysis for out-of-plane bending of unreinforced masonry walls", Earthq. Eng. Struct.Dyn., 31(4), 833-850. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.126
  12. Eurocode EC8 (2003), Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures; Part 1.1 General rules-Seismic actions and general requirements for structures, EN version, European Committee for Standardization
  13. IBC (2006), International Building Code, International Code Council, USA
  14. Kafle, B. (2011), "Behaviour of precast reinforced concrete columns in moderate seismic conditions", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia.
  15. Kafle,B., Lam, N.T.K., Gad, E.F. and Wilson, J.L. (2011a), "Displacement controlled rocking behaviour of rigid objects", Earthq.Eng. Struct. Dyn., 40(15), 1653-1669. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.1107
  16. Kafle, B., Lam, N.T.K., Wilson, J.L. and Gad, E.F. (2011b), "Analyses of seismic response behaviour of buildings supported by precast RC columns", Proceedings of the 2011 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM11+), Seoul, Korea, September.
  17. Lam, N.T.K., Wilson, J.L., Chandler, A.M. and Hutchinson, G.L. (2000),"Response spectrum modeling for rock sites in low and moderate seismicity regions combining velocity, displacement, and acceleration predictions", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 29(10),1491-1525. https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9845(200010)29:10<1491::AID-EQE970>3.0.CO;2-T
  18. Lam, N.T.K., Griffith, M.C., Wilson, J.L. and Doherty, K. (2003), "Time history analysis of URM walls in out-of-plane flexure", J. Eng.Struct.,25(6), 743-754. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(02)00218-3
  19. Lumantarna, E., Wilson, J.L. and Lam, N.T.K. (2012), "Bi-linear displacement response spectrum model for engineering applications in low and moderate seismicity regions", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 43, 85-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.07.006
  20. Makris, N. and Konstantinidis, D. (2003), "The rocking spectrum and the limitations of practical design methodologies", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 32, 265-289 https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.223
  21. Makris, N. and Roussos, Y. (2000), "Rocking response of rigid blocks under near source ground motions", Geotech., 50, 243-262. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2000.50.3.243
  22. Makris, N. and Vassiliou, M.F. (2013), "Planar rocking response and stability analysis of an array of free-standing columns capped with a freely supported rigid beam", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 42(3), 431-449. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2222
  23. Palermo, A., Pampanin, S. and Carr, A. (2005), "Efficiency of simplified alternative modelling approaches to predict the seismic response of precast concrete hybrid systems", Fib Symposium 'Keep concrete Attractive', Budapest
  24. Rodsin, K. (2007), "Seismic performance of reinforced concrete soft-storey buildings in low to moderate seismicity regions", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia.
  25. Spieth, H.A., Carr, A.J., Murahidy, A.G., Arnold, D., Davies, M. and Mander, J.B. (2004), "Modelling of post-tensioned precast reinforced concrete frame structures with rocking beam-column connections", Proceedings of NZSEE Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand, paper no. 32
  26. Wibowo, A., Wilson, J.L., Gad, E.F. and Lam, N.T.K. (2008), Performance Testing of Soft Storey Structures-Carlton Walk-up Flats, Australia: Swinburne University of Technology Project Report.
  27. Wibowo, A., Wilson, J.L., Lam, N.T.K. and Gad, E.F. (2010), "Collapse modeling analysis of precast soft storey building in Australia", Eng. Struct., 32(7), 1925-1936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.03.003
  28. Wibowo, A., Wilson, J.L., Gad, E.F., Lam, N.T.K. and Collier, P.A. (2011), "Drift capacity of a precast soft-storey building in Melbourne", Aust. J. Struct. Eng., 11(3), 177-193.
  29. Wilson, J.L., Lam, N.T.K. and Rodsin, K. (2009), "Collapse modelling of soft-storey buildings", Aust. J. Struct. Eng., 10(1), 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/13287982.2009.11465029
  30. Zhang, J. and Makris, N. (2001), "Rocking response of free-standing blocks under cycloidal pulses", J. Eng. Mech.(ASCE), 127(5), 473-483. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2001)127:5(473)

Cited by

  1. Observational failure analysis of precast buildings after the 2012 Emilia earthquakes vol.11, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2016.11.2.327
  2. Seismic retrofit of precast soft-storey building using diagonal steel-shape memory alloy bracing device: Numerical investigation pp.2048-4011, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1369433218800939