Characteristics of Variation of Sea Surface Temperature in the East Sea with the Passage of Typhoons

태풍의 이동경로에 따른 동해연안 수온변화 특성

  • Park, Myung-Hee (Ocean Climate&Ecology Research Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science) ;
  • Lee, Joon-Soo (Ocean Climate&Ecology Research Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science) ;
  • Suh, Young-Sang (Ocean Climate&Ecology Research Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science) ;
  • Kim, Hae-Dong (The Department of Global Environment, Keimyung University) ;
  • Bae, Hun-Kyun (The Department of Global Environment, Keimyung University)
  • 박명희 (국립수산과학원 기후변화연구과) ;
  • 이준수 (국립수산과학원 기후변화연구과) ;
  • 서영상 (국립수산과학원 기후변화연구과) ;
  • 김해동 (계명대학교 지구환경학과) ;
  • 배헌균 (계명대학교 지구환경학과)
  • Received : 2015.10.27
  • Accepted : 2015.12.08
  • Published : 2015.12.29


In this study, the wind direction and the wind speed of the nearest temperature observations point of the National Weather Service was analyzed in order to investigate the rapid rise and drop of water temperature in the East Coast appeared after passing of the 2015 typhoon No. 9 and 11. Then the figures were simulated and analyzed using the WRF(weather research and forecast) model to investigate in more detailed path of the typhoon as well as the changes in the wind field. The results were as follows. A sudden drop of water temperature was confirmed due to upwelling on the East coast when ninth typhoon Chanhom is transformed from tropical cyclones into extra tropical cyclone, then kept moving eastwards from Pyongyang forming a strong southerly wind after 13th and this phenomenon lasted for two days. The high SST(sea surface temperature) is confirmed due to a strong northerly wind by 11th typhoon Nangka. This strong wind directly affected the east coast for three days causing the Ekman effect which transported high offshore surface waters to the coast. The downwelling occurred causing an accumulation of high temperature surface water. As a results, the SST of 15m and 25m rose to that of 5m.


Typhoon;SST;Wind direction;Ekman transport;WRF model


Supported by : 국립수산과학원


  1. Lee, Y. H., Jin, H. K., Hang, J. D., Yoon, S. H., Sim, J. M., Kim, Y. S., Kwon, K. Y., 2008, The variation of water temperature in the coast of Eat sea, Proceedings of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety, 97.
  2. Lin, I. I., Liu, W. T., Wu, C. C., Wong, G. T. F., Hu, C., Chen, Z., Liang, W. D., Yang, Y., Liu, K. K., 2003, New evidence for enhanced ocean primary production triggered by tropical cyclone, Geophys, Res., Lett., 30(13), 51-1-51-4.
  3. Miller, B. I., 1985, On the maximum intensity of hurricanes, J. Meteor., 15, 184-195.
  4. Moon, I. J., Choi, E. S., 2011, A definition and criterion on typhoons approaching to the Korean peninsula for the objective statistical analysis, Atmosphere, 21(1), 45-55.
  5. Moon, I. J., Kwon, S. J., 2012, Impact of upper-ocean thermal structure on the intensity of Korean peninsular landfall typhoons, Progress in Oceanography, 105, 61-66.
  6. Nam, S. H., Yun, J. Y., Kim, K., 2004, Observation on the coastal ocean response to Typhoon Maemi at the East sea real-time ocean buoy, J. Korean Society of Oceanography, 9(3), 111-118.
  7. Senjyu T., Watanabe, T., 1999, A sudden temperature decrease along the Sanin Coast induced by a typhoon., Umito Sora, 75, 1-8.(in Japanese)
  8. Shang, S., Li, L., Sun, F., Wu, J., Hu, C., Chen, D., Ning, X., Qiu, Y., Zhamg, C., Shang, S., 2008, Changes of temperature and bio-optical properties in the South China Sea in response to typhoon Lingling, 2001. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L10602, 1-6.
  9. Shay, L. K., Black, P. G., Mariano, A. J., Hawkins, J. D., Elsberry, R. L., 1992, Upper ocean response to Hurricane Cilbert, J. Geophys, Res., 97, 20227-20248.
  10. Suh, Y. S., Kim, D. S., Kim, B. K., Lee, D. I., Kim, Y. S., Kim, I. K., 2002, Temporal and spatial variation of SST related to the path of typhoons around the Korean waters in summer, J. Environmental Sciences, 11(7), 627-636.
  11. Suh, Y. S., Gu, J. Y., Hwang, J. D., Lee, N. K., Kim, B. K., Jang, L. H., Kang, Y. Q., Lee, D. I., 2003, Abnormal oceanic conditions caused by typhoons around the Korean peninsula, J. Kor. Fish. Soc., 36(4), 417-429.
  12. Wright, R., 1969, Temperature structure across the Kuroshio before and after typhoon Shirley, Tellus, 21, 409-413.
  13. Emanuel, K. A., 1988, The maximum intensity of hurricanes, J. Atmos., Sci., 45, 1143-1155.<1143:TMIOH>2.0.CO;2
  14. Emanuel, K. A., Zivkovic-Rothman, M., 1999, Development and evaluation of a convection scheme for use in climate models, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1766-1782.<1766:DAEOAC>2.0.CO;2
  15. Evans, J. L., 1993, Sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to sea surface temperature, J. Climate, 6, 1133-1140.<1133:SOTCIT>2.0.CO;2
  16. Fedorov, K. N., Varfolomeev, A. A., Ginzburg, A. I., Zatespin, A. G., Krasnopevtsev, A. Y., Ostrovskii, A. G., Skylarov, A. E., 1979, Thermal reaction of the ocean on the passage of the Hurricane Ella, Oceanology, 19, 992-1001.
  17. Hahn, S. D., Suh Y. S., Ahn, Y. H., 1995, Mapping cold water zone and warning service for aquaculture groups at the southeastern coast of Korean peninsula, In proceeding of International Symposium on Remote Sensing, 11th Fall Symposium of KSRS, 67-74.
  18. Hong, C. H., 2003, A three-dimensional numerical study of coastal upwelling in the Norther Japanese coastal region with the passage of Typhoon Oliwa, J. Kor. Rishk. Soc., 36(6), 723-734.
  19. Hong, C. H., Sohn, I. S., 2004, Sea surface cooling in the East sea with the passage of typhoons, J. Kor. Fish. Soc., 37(2), 137-147.
  20. Eagleman, J. R., 1985, Meteorology: The Atmosphere in Action, 2nd ed., Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 177-198.
  21. Emanuel, K. A., 1987, The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate, Nature, 326, 483-485.
  22. Jeong, Y. Y., Moon, I. J., Kim, S. H., 2013, A study on upper ocean response to typhoon Ewiniar(0603) and its impact, Atmosphere, 23(2), 205-220.
  23. Jordan, C. L., 1964, On the influence of tropical cyclones on the sea surface temperature, Proc. Symp. Trop. Meteorol., Wellington, New Zealand Meteor. Serv., 614-622.
  24. Kang, Y. Q., Suh, Y. S., 1986, Relationships between air temperature and sea surface temperature anomalies in Korea, J. Korean Met. Society, 8-13.
  25. Kim, S. W., Yamada, K., Jang, L. H., Hong, C. H., Go, W. J., Suh, Y. S., Lee, J., Lee, G. H., 2007, Short-term variation of sea surface temperature caused by typhoon Nabi in the Eastern sea of Korean peninsula derived form satellite data, J. Kor. Fish, Soc., 40(2), 102-107.
  26. Kim, J. K., Cho, Y. G., Lee, J. Y., 2011, Variations of air and water temperature in the southeastern coastal waters of East sea of Korea, 2011 Joint Conference of the Korean Association of Ocean Science and Technology Societies, 1708-1711.
  27. Korty, R. L., Emanuel, K. A., Scott, J. R., 2008, Tropical cyclone-induced upper-ocean mixing and climate, application to equable climates, J. Climate, 21, 638-654.
  28. Leipper, D. F., 1967, Observed ocean conditions and Hurricane Hilada 1964, J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 182-196.<0182:OOCAHH>2.0.CO;2