DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: a Case-control Study in Faisalabad, Pakistan

  • Bashir, Muhammad Naeem (Government Municipal Degree College) ;
  • Ahmad, Muhammad Riaz (Government Postgraduate College) ;
  • Malik, Akram (Urology Department, Madina Teaching Hospital)
  • Published : 2015.01.06

Abstract

Background: Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among males in Pakistan but very little is known about risk factors among the Pakistani population. Therefore a hospital-based, case-control study was carried out in Faisalabad to identify potential risk factors. Materials and Methods: This study was based on 140 prostate cancer cases and 280 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to assess the relationship between prostate cancer and different risk factors. Results: Family history of prostate cancer, age, smoking, obesity, consumption of red meat and frequent use of fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of: 7.32; 1.79-29.8; 16.9, 5.60-50.8; 2.47, 1.17-5.18; 5.79, 2.66-12.6; 2.71, 1.07-6.91; and 3.39, 1.47-7.83, respectively. On the other hand, more consumption of fruit, fluid intake and better lifestyle (physical activity) significantly reduced the risk of developing prostate cancer with odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of: 0.27, 0.11-0.61; 0.05, 0.02-0.12; and 0.28, 0.13-0.58. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that age, family history of prostate cancer, smoking, obesity, fluid intake, frequent use of fat items, consumption of fruits and better lifestyle might be associated with prostate cancer among Pakistani males.

Keywords

Prostate cancer;risk factors;age;family history;odds ratio;Pakistan

References

  1. Ahmad Z, Qureshi A, Idrees R, Aftab K (2009). Prostatic carcinoma: a Pakistani perspective. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 323-4.
  2. Algota AM, Stratton SP, Moore JR, et al (2011). Association of obesity and smoking with PSA and PSA velocity in men with prostate cancer. Am J Men's Health, 5, 272-8. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988310390030
  3. Andersson SW, Baron J, Bergstrom R, et al (1996). Lifestyle factors and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Sweden. Cancer Epidemiol, Biomarkers Prev, 5, 509-13.
  4. Baade PD, Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Dunn J, Gardinar RA (2013). Epidemiology of prostate cancer in the Asia-pacific region. Prostate Int, 1, 47-58. https://doi.org/10.12954/PI.12014
  5. Bhurgri Y, Kayani N, Pervez S, et al (2009). Incidence and trends of prostate cancer in Karachi South, 1995-2002. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 45-8.
  6. Crawford ED (2003). Epidemiology of prostate cancer. Urology, 62, 3-12.
  7. Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM (2004). Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, version 2.0: IARC cancer base No.5. Lyon IARC press.
  8. Ganesh B, Saoba SL, Sarade MN, Pinjari SV (2011). Risk factors for prostate cancer: an hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India. Indian J Urol, 27, 345-50. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-1591.85438
  9. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Platz EA, Stampfer M, Willett WC (2007). Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professional's follow-up study. Int J Cancer, 121, 1571-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22788
  10. Gong Z, Agalliu I, Lin DW, Stanford JL, Kristal AR (2008). Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis in middle-aged men. Cancer Cause Control, 19, 25-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-007-9066-9
  11. Hosseini M, SeyedAlinaghi S, Mahmoudi M, McFarland W (2010). A case-control study of risk factors for prostate cancer in Iran. Acta Med Iran, 48, 61-6.
  12. Hsing AW, Deng J, Sesterhenn IA, et al (2000). Body size and prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 9, 133-41.
  13. Huncharek M, Haddock KS, Reid R, Kupelnick B (2010). Smoking as a risk factor for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 24 prospective cohort studies. Am J Public Health, 100, 693-701. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.150508
  14. Jeml A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
  15. Jian L, Xie LP, Lee AH, Binns CW (2004). Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in Southeast China. Int J Cancer, 108, 130-5. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11550
  16. Kicinski M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot TS (2011). An epidemiological reappraisal of the familal aggregation of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Plos One, 6, 27130. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027130
  17. Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Whittemore AS, et al (2000). Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 9, 795-99.
  18. Lange EM, Salinas CA, Zuhlke KA, et al (2012). Early onset prostate cancer has a significant genetic component. Prostate, 72, 147-56. https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.21414
  19. Lee MM, Wang RT, Hsing AW, Gu FL, Wang T, Spitz M (1998). Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in China. Cancer Cause Control, 9, 545-52. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008840105531
  20. Meister K, Morgan JW, Beeles TA (2002). Risk factors for prostate cancer. Am Counci Sci Health, 4, 25-31.
  21. Negri E, Pelucchi C, Talamini R (2005). Family history of cancer and the risk of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Int J Cancer, 114, 648-52. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.20755
  22. Parkin D M, Brays F, Ferlay J (2004). Global cancer statistics. Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108.
  23. Pourmand G, Salem S, Mehrsai A, et al (2007). The risk factors of prostate cancer: a multicentric case-control study in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 422-8.
  24. Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A (2014). Cancer statistics. Cancer J Clin, 64, 9-29. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21208
  25. Sonada T, Nagata Y, Mori M (2004). A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible effect of traditional Japanese diet. Cancer Society, 95, 238. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb02209.x
  26. Tori DC, Matheson GO (2004). Exercise and prostate cancer. Sports Med, 34, 363-9. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434060-00003
  27. Tyagi B, Manoharm N, Raina V (2010). A case control study on prostate cancer in Delhi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 397-401.
  28. Wolk A (2005). Diet, Lifestyle and risk of prostate cancer. Acta Oncologia, 44, 277-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860510029572

Cited by

  1. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults vol.9, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v9.31642
  2. BMI trajectories and risk of overall and grade-specific prostate cancer: An observational cohort study among men seen for prostatic conditions vol.7, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1747