Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: a Case-control Study in Faisalabad, Pakistan

  • Published : 2015.01.06


Background: Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among males in Pakistan but very little is known about risk factors among the Pakistani population. Therefore a hospital-based, case-control study was carried out in Faisalabad to identify potential risk factors. Materials and Methods: This study was based on 140 prostate cancer cases and 280 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to assess the relationship between prostate cancer and different risk factors. Results: Family history of prostate cancer, age, smoking, obesity, consumption of red meat and frequent use of fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of: 7.32; 1.79-29.8; 16.9, 5.60-50.8; 2.47, 1.17-5.18; 5.79, 2.66-12.6; 2.71, 1.07-6.91; and 3.39, 1.47-7.83, respectively. On the other hand, more consumption of fruit, fluid intake and better lifestyle (physical activity) significantly reduced the risk of developing prostate cancer with odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of: 0.27, 0.11-0.61; 0.05, 0.02-0.12; and 0.28, 0.13-0.58. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that age, family history of prostate cancer, smoking, obesity, fluid intake, frequent use of fat items, consumption of fruits and better lifestyle might be associated with prostate cancer among Pakistani males.


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