Demographic Survey of Four Thousand Patients with 10 Common Cancers in North Eastern Iran over the Past Three Decades

  • Nikfarjam, Zahra (Students Research Committee, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Massoudi, Toktam (Research Center for Patient Safety, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Salehi, Maryam (Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Solid Tumor Treatment Research Center, Omid Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Salehi, Mahta (School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Khoshroo, Fahimeh (Department of Radiation Oncology, Razavi Hospital)
  • Published : 2015.01.06


Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality in developing countries and correct and valid information about the epidemiology of this disease is the first step in the planning of health care in each region. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency, mean age and sex ratio of the most 10 common non-skin cancers in the world and Iran, among patients referred to an oncology clinic. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Mashhad, north east of Iran. The data obtained from the records of patients referred to the private oncology center between the years of 1985-2012". According to the latest report of GLOBOCAN study commonest malignancies included were lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, stomach, liver, cervix, esophageal, bladder cancers and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Results: A total of 4,606 cases were analyzed. The mean age was $55.5{\pm}13.8years$ (male: $59.5{\pm}13.9$, female: $52.6{\pm}12.9$). Overall, breast cancer (1,264 cases, relative frequency of 27.4%) was the most prevalent cancer; however the mean ages of diagnosis were not significantly different between 5-year time period divisions (p=0.290). The most common cancer in men was esophageal cancer (26.3%).The lowest mean age was related to women diagnosed with breast cancer ($48.5{\pm}11.8$) and men with non-Hodgkins lymphoma ($48.4{\pm}17.8$). There were statistically significant differences between the mean age of men and women with gastric (p=0.003) and esophageal cancers (p<0.001). Male to female sex ratios in our study for bladder, lung and stomach cancers were 6.57, 2.60 and 2.50 respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that breast cancer tends to be found in younger female patients and bladder cancer appears more often in men. Screening in target population in addition to early diagnosis may reduce death and disability.


Cancer;epidemiology;Iran;Mashhad;demographic survey


  1. Safaee A, Fatemi S, Ashtari M, et al (2012). Four years incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Iran: a survey of national cancer registry data - implications for screening. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 2695-98.
  2. Salehi A, Khezri A, Malekmakan A, et al (2011). Epidemiologic status of bladder cancer in Shiraz, southern Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1323-7.
  3. Siegel R, Ward E, Brawley A, Brawley O, Jemal A (2011). Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 212-36.
  4. Somi MH, Golzari M, Farhang S, Naghashi S, Abdollahi L(2014). Gastrointestinal cancer incidence in East Azerbaijan, Iran: update on 5 year incidence and trends. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3945-9.
  5. Vostakolaei F, Broeders M, Rostami J, et al (2012). Age at diagnosis and breast cancer survival in iran. Int J Breast Cancer, 12, 89-95.
  6. Yavari P, Sadrolhefazi B, Mohagheghi R, et al (2009). A descriptive retrospective study of bladder cancer at a hospital in Iran (1973-2003). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 681-4.
  7. Yaw YH, Shariff ZM, Kandiah M, et al (2014). Diet and physical activity in relation to weight change among breast cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 39-44.
  8. Zahir S and Mirtalebi M(2012). Survival of patients with lung cancer, Yazd, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4387-91.
  9. Zahir S, Nazemian S, Zand S, Zare S (2014). Survival of patients with prostate cancer in Yazd, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 883-6.
  10. Ahmadi M, Ranjbaran M.M, Amiri H, et al (2012). Epidemiologic and socioeconomic status of bladder cancer in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5053-56.
  11. Arab M, Noghabaei G, Kazemi S.N (2014). Comparison of crude and age-specific incidence rates of breast, ovary, endometrium and cervix cancers in Iran, 2005. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2461-4.
  12. Atrkar-Roushan Z, Kazemnejad A, Mansour-Ghanaei F, Zayeri F (2013). Trend analysis of gastrointestinal cancer incidences in Guilan province: comparing rates over 15 years. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7587-93.
  13. Baghestani A.R, Daneshvar T, Pourhoseingholi M.A, Asadzade H (2014). Survival of colorectal cancer patients in the presence of competing-risk. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6253-6255.
  14. Basiri A, Shakhssalim N, Jalaly H, et al (2014). Difference in the incidences of the most prevalent urologic cancers from 2003 to 2009 in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1459-63.
  15. Bouguerra H, Guissouma H, Labidi S, et al (2014). Breast cancer in Tunisia: association of body mass index with histopathological aspects of tumors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6805-10.
  16. Bray F, Masuyer E, Ferlay J (2012). Estimates of global cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. Int J Cancer, 132, 1133-45.
  17. Dsouza N, Murthy N, Aras R.Y (2013). Projection of cancer incident cases for India -till 2026. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4379-86.
  18. El-Basmy A, (2013). "Profile of lung cancer in kuwait. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6181-84.
  19. Emami Razavi SH, Haghazali M, Nadali F, et al (2009). The Most Common Cancers in Iranian Women. Iranian J Publ Health, 38, 109-112.
  20. Abachizadeh K, Mohagheghi A, Mosavi-Jarrahi A (2012). Setting research priorities to reduce burden of cancer in Iran: an institutional experience. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 2365-70.
  21. Afsharfard A, Mozaffar M, Orang E, Tahmasbpour E (2013). Trends in epidemiology, clinical and histopathological characteristics of breast cancer in Iran: results of a 17 year study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6905-11.
  22. Fallahzadeh H, Momayyezi M, Akhundzardeini R, Zarezardeini S(2014). Five year survival of women with breast cancer in Yazd. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6597-601.
  23. Ferlay J, Ervik M, Dikshit R, et al (2012). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide.IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from:, accessed on day/month/year.
  24. Hajmanoochehri F, Asefzadeh S, Kazemifar AM, Ebtehaj M (2014). Clinicopathological features of colon adenocarcinoma in Qazvin, Iran: a 16 year study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 951-5.
  25. Harirchi I, Kolahdoozan S, Karbakhsh N, et al (2010). Twenty years of breast cancer in Iran: downstaging without a formal screening program. Ann Oncol, 22, 93-97.
  26. Heidarnia MA, Monfared Akbari ME (2013). Social determinants of health and 5-year survival of colorectal cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5111-16.
  27. Hemminki K, Mousavi J, Sundquist A, Sundquist J, Brandt A (2011). Does the breast cancer age at diagnosis differ by ethnicity? A study on immigrants to Sweden. Oncologist, 16, 146-154.
  28. Kamangar F, Malekzadeh R, Dawsey F, Dawsey S, Saidi F (2007). Esophageal cancer in Northeastern Iran: a review. Arch Iranian Med, 10, 70-82.
  29. Karbakhsh M, Dabbagh N, Shabani A, et al(2013). Age at diagnosis in bladder cancer: does opium addiction play a role?. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4723-25.
  30. Karimi Zarchi M, Akhavan A, Fallahzadeh H, et al (2011). Outcome of cervical cancer in Iranian patients according to tumor histology, stage of disease and therapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 1289-9.
  31. Khademi H and Kamangar F(2012). Esophageal cancer incidence trends in northeastern Iran: comparing rates over 36 years. Arch Iran Med, 15, 194-5.
  32. Kiadaliri AA (2014). Gender and social disparities in esophagus cancer incidence in Iran, 2003-2009: a time trend provincelevel study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 623-7.
  33. Magaji BA, Moy FM, Roslani AC, Law CW (2014). Descriptive epidemiology of colorectal cancer in University Malaya Medical Centre, 2001 to 2010. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6059-64.
  34. Mansour-Ghanaei F, Heidarzadeh A, Naghipour F,et al (2013). A 10-year study of esophageal cancer in Guilan province, Iran: the Guilan Cancer Registry Study (GCRS). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 13, 6277-6283.
  35. Moradi A, Khayamzadeh M, Guya H et al (2009). Survival of colorectal cancer in Iran. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 10, 583-6.
  36. Mosavi-Jarrahi A, Ahmadi-Jouibari T, Najafi Y, et al (2013). Estimation of esophageal cancer incidence in Tehran by log- linear method using population-based cancer registry data. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5367-70.
  37. Mousavi S, Gouya M, Ramazani M, et al (2009).Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran. Ann Oncol, 20, 556-63.
  38. Mousavi S and Somi M (2009). Gastric cancer in Iran 1966-2006. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 10, 407-12.
  39. Najafi B, Anvari S, Roshan ZA (2013). Disease free survival among molecular subtypes of early stage breast cancer between 2001 and 2010 in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5811-6.
  40. Nikbakht R and Bahrampour A (2013). Colorectal cancer trends in Kerman province, the largest province in Iran, with forecasting until 2016. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 14, 791-793.
  41. Reis N, Bebis H, Kose S,et al (2012). Knowledge, behavior and beliefs related to cervical cancer and screening among Turkish women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 1463-70.

Cited by

  1. Effect of genetic ancestry to the risk of susceptibility to gastric cancer in a mixed population of the Brazilian Amazon vol.10, pp.1, 2017,
  2. A Review of the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in the Middle East vol.In press, pp.In press, 2017,