Quality Characteristics and Quantification of Acetaldehyde and Methanol in Apple Wine Fermentation by Various Pre-Treatments of Mash

  • Won, Seon Yi (Gyeonggi-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services) ;
  • Seo, Jae Soon (Gyeonggi-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services) ;
  • Kwak, Han Sub (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University) ;
  • Lee, Youngseung (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, Misook (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University) ;
  • Shim, Hyoung-Seok (BHD Brewery, Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Jeong, Yoonhwa (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2015.09.01
  • Accepted : 2015.10.02
  • Published : 2015.12.31


The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding lactic acid and pectinase, and chaptalization for the quality of apple wine and the production of hazardous compounds (methanol and acetaldehyde). The pH of all of the samples was below 4; therefore, mash seemed to be fermented without any issue. Total acidity was the highest in sample A due to lactic acid addition. Pre-treated groups (samples B, C, and D) showed higher total acidities than that of the control (P<0.05). Pre-treatments might influence the production of organic acids in apple wines. The control and pectinase added sample (sample B) had the lowest alcohol contents. Adding lactic acid produced more alcohol, and chaptalized samples produced more alcohol due to the addition of sugar. Adding pectinase with and without chaptalization was not effective for producing more alcohol. The control sample had significantly higher acetaldehyde content (2.39 mg/L) than the other samples (1.00~2.07 mg/L); therefore, pre-treatments for apple wine fermentation produced a lower amount of acetaldehyde. Among the pre-treated samples, samples C and D showed the lowest acetaldehyde content of 1.00 mg/L and 1.16 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, a significantly higher amount of methanol was generated for sample A (1.03 mg/L) and sample D (1.22 mg/L) than that of the control (0.82 mg/L) (P<0.05). Adding lactic acid or chaptalization was effective in reducing methanol and acetaldehyde in apple wines.


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