DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

  • Lee, Gong-Hyeon (Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Harwanto, Dicky (Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Park, Sun-Mee (Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Choi, Jae-Suk (Department of Bio-Food Materials, Silla University) ;
  • Kim, Mi-Ryung (Department of Bio-Food Materials, Silla University) ;
  • Hong, Yong-Ki (Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University)
  • Received : 2015.06.23
  • Accepted : 2015.10.04
  • Published : 2015.12.31

Abstract

The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of $0.5 mg/10{\mu}L/g$ body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [$105{\pm}18s$ (P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [$1.18{\pm}0.05$ Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

References

  1. Tucker CS. 2000. Off-flavor problems in aquaculture. Rev Fish Sci 8: 45-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641260091129170
  2. Doopedia. 2015. Leather carp. https://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000867865 (accessed April 30, 2015).
  3. KFS. 2014. Korean fisheries yearbook. Korea Fisheries Association, Seoul, Korea. p 531.
  4. Mehta RK, Agnew MJ. 2012. Influence of mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent static work. Eur J Appl Physiol 112: 2891-2902. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2264-x
  5. Marquez R, Santangelo G, Sastre J, Goldschmidt P, Luyckx J, Pallardo FV, Vina J. 2001. Cyanoside chloride and chromocarbe diethylamine are more effective than vitamin C against exercise-induced oxidative stress. Pharmacol Toxicol 89: 255-328. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0773.2001.d01-156.x
  6. An HJ, Choi HM, Park HS, Han JG, Lee EH, Park YS, Um JY, Hong SH, Kim HM. 2006. Oral administration of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris increases physical stamina in mice. Ann Nutr Metab 50: 380-386. https://doi.org/10.1159/000094303
  7. Jung KA, Han D, Kwon EK, Lee CH, Kim YE. 2007. Antifatigue effect of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract in mice. J Med Food 10: 689-693. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2006.006
  8. Yu B, Lu ZX, Bie XM, Lu FX, Huang XQ. 2008. Scavenging and anti-fatigue activity of fermented defatted soybean peptides. Eur Food Res Technol 226: 415-421. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0552-1
  9. Yu F, Lu S, Yu F, Feng S, McGuire PM, Li R, Wang R. 2006. Protective effects of polysaccharide from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on the swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 84: 1071-1079. https://doi.org/10.1139/y06-052
  10. Wang J, Li S, Fan Y, Chen Y, Liu D, Cheng H, Gao X, Zhou Y. 2010. Anti-fatigue activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. J Ethnopharmacol 130: 421-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.027
  11. Ni W, Gao T, Wang H, Du Y, Li J, Li C, Wei L, Bi H. 2013. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides from the fruits of four Tibetan plateau indigenous medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 150: 529-535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.055
  12. Yu FR, Liu Y, Cui YZ, Chan EQ, Xie MR, McGuire PP, Yu FH. 2010. Effects of a flavonoid extract from Cynomorium songaricum on the swimming endurance of rats. Am J Chin Med 38: 65-73. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X10007774
  13. Huang CC, Hsu MC, Huang WC, Yang HR, Hou CC. 2012. Triterpenoid-rich extract from Antrodia camphorata improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012: 364741.
  14. Ren J, Zhao M, Wang H, Cui C, You L. 2011. Effects of supplementation with grass carp protein versus peptide on swimming endurance in mice. Nutrition 27: 789-795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.020
  15. Wang L, Zhang HL, Lu R, Zhou YJ, Ma R, Lv JQ, Li XL, Chen LJ, Yao Z. 2008. The decapeptide CMS001 enhances swimming endurance in mice. Peptides 29: 1176-1182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2008.03.004
  16. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265-275.
  17. Kim JH, Jung WS, Bae GS, Heo HJ, Kim DO, Yoon JA, Kim S, Kim YJ. 2010. Short-term synergistic effect of fruit extracts with red-ginseng on forced swimming endurance capacity in ICR mice. Food Sci Biotechnol 19: 267-270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-010-0039-5
  18. Li X, Mohan S, Gu W, Wergedal J, Baylink DJ. 2001. Quantitative assessment of forearm muscle size, forelimb grip strength, forearm bone mineral density, and forearm bone size in determining humerus breaking strength in 10 inbred strains of mice. Calcif Tissue Int 68: 365-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-001-0004-7
  19. Golde WT, Gollobin P, Rodriguez LL. 2005. A rapid, simple, and humane method for submandibular bleeding of mice using a lancet. Lab Anim 34: 39-43.
  20. Ahn BM. 2001. The raw biles of grass carp, common carp, and Israeli carp. Kor J Hepatol 7: 131-133.
  21. Choi JH, Rhim CH, Choi YJ, Park KD, Oh SK. 1985. Comparative study on amino acid profiles of wild and cultured carp, and Israeli carp. Bull Korean Fish Soc 18: 545-549.
  22. Young VR, Pellett PL. 1994. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 59: 1203S-1212S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/59.5.1203S
  23. Chen HM, Muramoto K, Yamauchi F, Nokihara K. 1996. Antioxidant activity of designed peptides based on the antioxidative peptide isolated from digests of a soybean protein. J Agric Food Chem 44: 2619-2623. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf950833m
  24. Elias RJ, Kellerby SS, Decker EA. 2008. Antioxidant activity of proteins and peptides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48: 430-441. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390701425615
  25. Kim MR. 2014. Development of high value material and bioactive components from freshwater fish. A report submitted to the Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion, Seoul, Korea. p 201.
  26. Dong S, Zeng M, Wang D, Liu Z, Zhao Y, Yang H. 2008. Antioxidant and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Food Chem 107: 1485-1493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.011
  27. You L, Zhao M, Cui C, Zhao H, Yang B. 2009. Effect of degree of hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) protein hydrolysates. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 10: 235-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2008.08.007
  28. Saggu S, Kumar R. 2008. Effect of seabuckthorn leaf extracts on circulating energy fuels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in rats during exposure to cold, hypoxia and restraint (C-H-R) stress and post stress recovery. Phytomedicine 15: 437-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2007.11.002
  29. Garrett RH, Grisham CM. 2005. Biochemistry. 3rd ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA, USA. p 1086.
  30. Mason RP, Jacob RF. 2015. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits glucose-induced membrane cholesterol crystalline domain formation through a potent antioxidant mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta-Biomembr 1848: 502-509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.10.016
  31. Kumar GP, Anand T, Singsit D, Khanum F, Anilakumar KR. 2013. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-fatigue properties of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. in rats subjected to weight loaded forced swim test. Pharmacogn J 5: 66-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phcgj.2013.03.005
  32. Wu CY, Chen R, Wang XS, Shen B, Yue W, Wu Q. 2013. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of phenolic extract from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. and identification of three phenolic compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Molecules 18: 11003-11021. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules180911003
  33. Cai Q, Rahn RO, Zhang R. 1997. Dietary flavonoids, quercetin, luteolin and genistein, reduce oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and quench free radicals. Cancer Lett 119: 99-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(97)00261-9
  34. Kotosai M, Shimada S, Kanda M, Matsuda N, Sekido K, Shimizu Y, Tokumura A, Nakamura T, Murota K, Kawai Y, Terao J. 2013. Plasma HDL reduces nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides originating from oxidized LDL: a mechanism for its antioxidant ability. Lipids 48: 569-578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-013-3779-1
  35. Drew BG, Duffy SJ, Formosa MF, Natoli AK, Henstridge DC, Penfold SA, Thomas WG, Mukhamedova N, de Courten B, Forbes JM, Yap FY, Kaye DM, van Hall G, Febbraio MA, Kemp BE, Sviridov D, Steinberg GR, Kingwell BA. 2009. High-density lipoprotein modulates glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 119: 2103-2111. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.843219
  36. Fryirs MA, Barter PJ, Appavoo M, Tuch BE, Tabet F, Heather AK, Rye KA. 2010. Effects of high-density lipoproteins on pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell insulin secretion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30: 1642-1648. https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.207373
  37. Chapman MJ. 2006. Therapeutic elevation of HDL-cholesterol to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Pharmacol Ther 111: 893-908. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2006.02.003
  38. Bazzano LA, Li TY, Joshipura KJ, Hu FB. 2008. Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 31: 1311-1317. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc08-0080
  39. Mirmiran P, Noori N, Zavareh MB, Azizi F. 2009. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Metabolism 58: 460-468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2008.11.002
  40. Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, O'Donnell CJ, Breslow JL, Buring JE. 1997. Fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation 96: 2520-2525. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.96.8.2520

Cited by

  1. Pathogenic microorganisms, heavy metals, and antibiotic residues in seven Korean freshwater aquaculture species vol.25, pp.5, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0228-y