A Study on the Agent (Protective Device)-based Fault Determination and Separation Methodology for Smart Grid Distribution System

Ko, Yun-Seok

  • Received : 2014.03.10
  • Accepted : 2014.10.07
  • Published : 2015.01.01


This paper proposes a new fault isolation methodology for a smart protective device which plays an agent role on the smart grid distribution system with the distributed generation. It, by itself, determines accurately whether its protection zone is fault or not, identifies the fault zone and separates the fault zone through the exchange of fault information such as the current information and the voltage information with other protective devices using bi-directional communication capabilities on the smart grid distribution system. The heuristic rules are obtained from the structure and electrical characteristics determined according to the location of the fault and DG (Distributed Generation) when faults such as single-phase ground fault, phase-to-phase short fault and three-phase short fault occur on the smart grid distribution system with DG.


Distribution system;Smart grid;Smart protective device;Distributed generation


  1. T.M. Lai, L.A. Snider, E. Lo, and D. Sutanto, “High impedance fault detection using discrete wavelet transform and frequency range and RMS conversion,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 397-407, Jan. 2005.
  2. Yuan-Yih Hsu, H. M. Huang and H. C. Kuo, “Distribution system service restoration using a heuristic search approach,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 734-740, April 1992.
  3. Qin Zhou, D. Shirmohammadi, and W.-H.E. Liu, “Distribution feeder reconfiguration for service restoration and load balancing,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Volume 12, No. 2, pp. 724-729 May 1997.
  4. B. D. Russel and R. P. Chinchali, “A digital signal processing algorithm for detecting arcing faults on power distribution feeders,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.4, No.1, Jan. 1989.
  5. M. Michalik, W. Rebizant, M. Lukowicz, and Seung-Jae Lee, and Sang-Hee Kang, “High-impedance fault detection in distribution networks with use of waveletbased algorithm,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 1793-1802, Oct. 2006.
  6. A. Apostolov, J. Beatty, et al., “Application of peer-to peer communications for protective relaing,” IEEE PSRC Working Group H5 Report to the Communications Subcommittee, 2000.
  7. Communication Networks and Systems in Substations, IEC 61850, 2003, First edition.
  8. Yun-Seok Ko, “A self-isolation method for the HIF zone under the network-based distribution system,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 884-891, April 2009.
  9. KEPCO, “A study on the actual examination of bidirectional protection for interconnecting distributed resources with distribution system,” KEPRI Technical Report TR. H02. S2009.0998, Feb. 2009.
  10. M. E. Baran and F. F Wu, “Network reconfig-uration in distribution systems for loss reduction and load balancing,” IEEE Trans. On PWRD, Vol. 4, pp. 1401-1407, 1989
  11. C.H. Castro, J.B. Bunch, and T.M. Topka, “Generalized algorithms for distribution feeder deployment and sectionalizing,” IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-99, No. pp. 549-557, March/April 1980.
  12. K. Aoki, K. Nara, M. Itoh, T. Satoh, and H. Kuwabara, “A new algorithm for service restoration in distribution systems,” IEEE 89 VM 085-2 PWRD. 1989.
  13. S. Civanlar, J. J. Grainger, H. Yin, and S. S. H. Lee, “Distribution feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1217-1223, July 1988.
  14. K. Aoki, H. Kuwabara, T. Satoh, and M. Kanezashi, “An efficient algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders by switch operation in large scale distribution Systems,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 1865-1872, Octo-ber 1988.
  15. Y.-Y. Hsu, J.-H. Yi, S.S. Liu, Y. W. Chen, H. C. Feng, and Y. M. Lee, “Transformer and feeder load balancing using a heuristic search approach,” IEEE Trans. on PWRD, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 184-190, 1993.
  16. A. A. Girgis , C. M. Fallon, and D. L. Lubkeman, “Fault location technique for rural distribution feeders,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 1170-1175, November 1993.
  17. R. Das, M. S. Sachdev and T. S Sidhu, “A fault locator for radial subtransmission and distribution lines,” IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol. 1, pp. 443-448, 2000.
  18. A. L. Morelato and A. Monticelli, “Heuristic search approach to distribution system restoration,” Elec-tric Power Systems Research, Vol. 4. No. 4, pp. 2235-2241, October 1989.