• Received : 2015.10.28
  • Accepted : 2015.12.04
  • Published : 2015.12.31


Four different paddy soils collected around the Gyeongju nuclear site were treated with $^{99}TcO_4{^-}$ solution under the assumption of two contrasting contamination scenarios. Scenario I (SN-I) is for a pre-transplanting deposition of $^{99}Tc$ followed by plowing, whereas SN-II is for its deposition onto the water surface shortly after transplanting. Rice plants were grown in lysimeters in a greenhouse. Plant uptake of $^{99}Tc$ was quantified with the $TF_{area}$ ($m^2{\cdot}kg^{-1}-dry$). The SN-II $TF_{area}$ values for straws and brown rice, having been generally higher than the SN-I values, were within the ranges of $6.9{\times}10^{-3}{\sim}4.1{\times}10^{-2}$ and $5.2{\times}10^{-6}{\sim}7.3{\times}10^{-5}$, respectively. Sorption onto clay seems to have decreased $^{99}Tc$ uptake in SN-I, whereas it may have had an insignificant effect in SN-II. A phenomenon characteristic of submerged paddy soil, i.e., the development of a thin oxic surface layer may have greatly affected the rice uptake of SN-II $^{99}Tc$. The surface-water concentrations of $^{99}Tc$ were much higher in SN-II than in SN-I. For the percolating water, however, the opposite was generally true. At most 1.3% of the applied $^{99}Tc$ were leached through such percolation. The use of empirical deposition time-dependent $TF_{area}$ values was considered desirable in assessing the radiological impact of a growing-season deposition of $^{99}Tc$ onto paddy fields.


Supported by : MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning)


  1. Kogel-Knabner I, Amelung W, Cao Z, Fiedler S, Frenzel P, Jahn R, Kalbitz K, Kolbl A, Schloter M. Biogeochemistry of paddy soils. Geoderma 2010;157:1-14.
  2. Chapagain AK, Hoekstra AY. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from production and consumption perspectives. Ecol. Econ. 2011; 70:749-758.
  3. Choi YH, Lim KM, Jun I, Kim BH, Keum DK. Soil-to-rice transfer of $^{99}Tc$ in paddy soils contaminated in two different ways. Korean Nuclear Society Spring Meeting. 2014 May 29-30. Jeju, Korea.
  4. Adjao RT, Staatz JM. Asian rice economy changes and implications for Sub-Saharan Africa. Global Food Secur. 2015;5:50-55.
  5. Haefele SM, Nelson A, Hijmans RJ. Soil quality and constraints in global rice production. Geoderma 2014;235-236:250-259.
  6. Yoshida S. Fundamentals of rice crop science. Laguna, Philippines; International Rice Research Institute.1981:95-112.
  7. Lee EW. Rice culture. 6th ed. Seoul; Hyangmoon Press. 1996:148-231 (in Korean).
  8. Marschner H. Mineral nutrition in higher plants. London; Academic Press. 1986:498-499.
  9. Bennett R, Willey N. Soil availability, plant uptake and soil to plant transfer of $^{99}Tc$ - a review. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 2003;65:215-231.
  10. Tagami K, Uchida S. Aging effect on bioavailability of Mn, Co, Zn and Tc in Japanese agricultural soils under waterlogged conditions. Geoderma 1998;84:3-13.
  11. Tagami K, Uchida S. Chemical transformation of technetium in soil during the change of soil water condition. Chemosphere 1999;38:963-971.
  12. Yanagisawa K, Muramatsu Y, Kamada H. Tracer experiments on the transfer of technetium from soil to rice and wheat plants. Radioisotopes 1992;41:397-402.
  13. Yanagisawa K, Muramatsu Y. Transfer of technetium from soil to paddy and upland rice. J. Radiat. Res. 1995;36:171-178.
  14. Choi YH, Lim M, Jun I, Keum DK. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of $^{99}Tc$ for Korean major upland crops. J. Radiat. Prot. 2011;36:209-215 (in Korean).
  15. Shi K, Hou X, Roos P, Wu W. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental samples: a review. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2012;709:1-20.
  16. Choi YH, Lim KM, Jun I , Kim BH, Keum DK. Soil-to-soybean transfer of 99Tc and its underground distribution in differently contaminated upland soils. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 2014;132:57-64.
  17. Helton JC, Hansen CW, Sallaberry CJ. Expected dose and associated uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for all scenario classes in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca mountain, Nevada. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Safe. 2014;122: 421-435.
  18. Smith G, Kato T. International collaboration in assessment of radiological impacts arising from releases to the bioshpere after disposal of radioactive waste into geological repositories. Nucl. Eng. Technol. 2010;42:1-8.
  19. Ashworth DJ, Shaw G. Soil migration and plant uptake of technetium from a fluctuating water table. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 2005;81:155-171.
  20. Hammecker C, Maeght J-L, Grünberger O, Siltacho S, Srisruk K, Noble A. Quantification and modelling of water flow in rain-fed paddy fields in NE Thailand: evidence of soil salinization under submerged conditions by artesian groundwater. J. Hydrol. 2012;456-457:68-78.
  21. Ahmed ZU, Panaullah GM, DeGloria SD, Duxbury JM. Factors affecting paddy soil arsenic concentration in Bangladesh: prediction and uncertainty of geostatistical risk mapping. Sci. Total Environ. 2011;412-413:324-335.
  22. Uchida S, Tagami K, Rühm W, Wirth E. Determination of $^{99}Tc$ deposited on the ground within the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl reactor and estimation of 99Tc released into atmosphere by the accident. Chemosphere 1999;39:2757-2766.
  23. Ng YC, Colsher CS, Thompson SE. Soil-to-plant concentration factors for radiological assessment. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NUREG/CR-2975, UCID-19463. 1982.
  24. International Atomic Energy Agency. Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in terrestrial and freshwater environments. IAEA Technical Reports Series 472. 2010.
  25. Leung JKC, Shang ZR. Uptake of $^{137}Cs$ and $^{90}Sr$ in rice plants. Health Phys. 2003;84:170-179.
  26. Choi YH, Lim KM, Jun I, Park DW, Keum DK, Lee CW. Root uptake of radionuclides following their acute soil deposition during the growth of selected food crops. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 2009; 100:746-751.
  27. Choi YH, Lim KM, Jun I, Keum DK, Han MH, Kim IG. Transport behavior and rice uptake of radiostrontium and radiocesium in flooded paddy soils contaminated in two contrasting ways. Sci. Total Environ. 2011;412-413:248-256.
  28. Choi YH, Lim KM, Jun I, Park DW, Keum DK, Han MH. Soil-to-rice seeds transfer factors of radioiodine and technetium for paddy fields around the radioactive-waste disposal site in Gyeongju. J. Korean Radioact. Waste Soc. 2010;8:329-337 (in Korean).
  29. Myttenaere G, Bourdeau P, Masset M. Relative importance of soil and water in the indirect contamination of flooded rice with radiocesium. Health Phys. 1969;16:701-707.
  30. Wigley F, Warwick PE, Croudace IW, Caborn J, Sanchez AL. Optimized method of the routine determination of technetium-99 in environmental samples by liquid scintillation counting. Anal. Chim. Acta. 1999:380:73-82.
  31. Cho JY, Chang KY. Statistical analysis of experiments. 9th ed. Seoul; Hyangmoon Press. 1985:92-112 (in Korean).
  32. Little TM, Hills FJ. Agricultural experimentation - design and analysis. New York; John Wiley and Sons. 1978: 47-65.
  33. Denys S, Echevarria G, Florentin L, Leclerc- Cessac E, Morel J-L. Availability of $^{99}Tc$ in undisturbed soil cores. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 2003;70: 115-126.
  34. Wildung RE, Garland TR, Cataldo DA. Accumulation of technetium by plants. Health Phys. 1977; 32:314-317.
  35. Cho SJ, Park CS, Uhm DI. Soil science. 7th ed. Seoul; Hyangmoon Press, 1997:152-153 (in Korean).
  36. Sheppard SC, Sheppard MI, Evenden WG. A novel method used to examine variation in Tc sorption among 34 soils, aerated and anoxic. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 1990;11:215-233.
  37. International Atomic Energy Agency. Generic models for use in assessing the impact of radioactive substances to the environment. IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 19. 2001.
  38. Abbott ML, Rood AS. COMIDA: a radionuclide food chain model for acute fallout deposition. Health Phys. 1994;66:17-29.
  39. Muller H, Prohl G. ECOSYS-87: a dynamic model for assessing radiological consequences of nuclear accident. Health Phys. 1993;64:232-252.
  40. Choi YH, Lim KM, Jun I, Keum DK, Lee CW. Long-term predictions of the $^{90}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ concentrations in rice for their acute deposition at different times of the year. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 2008;Sup. 5:650-653.
  41. Choi YH, Lim KM, Park HG, Park DW, Kang HS, Lee HS. Transfer of $^{137}Cs$ to rice plants from various paddy soils contaminated under flooded conditions at different growth stages. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 2005;80:45-58.
  42. Koh HJ, Lee HJ, Lee BW, Cho YI, Lee JS. Establishment of production technology and breeding varieties for improving nitrogen-use efficiency in rice. Seoul National University Final Research Report. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2001.