DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

  • Li, P. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Xu, X. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, Q. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Liu, J.D. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Li, Q.Y. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, S. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Ma, X.K. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Piao, X.S. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2014.03.03
  • Accepted : 2014.07.20
  • Published : 2015.01.01

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows ($29.6{\pm}2.3kg$) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a $6{\times}6$ Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p>0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS.

Keywords

Amino Acid Digestibility;Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratio;Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles;Full-oil and De-oiled;Growing Pigs;Processing

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Natural Science Foundation of China

References

  1. Fastinger, N. D. and D. C. Mahan. 2006. Determination of the ileal amino acid and energy digestibilities of corn distillers dried grains with solubles using grower-finisher pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1722-1728. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-308
  2. Almeida, F. N., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:4109-4115. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4143
  3. Anderson, P. V., B. J. Kerr, T. E. Weber, C. J. Ziemer, and G. C. Shurson. 2012. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical analysis of corn coproducts fed to finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1242-1254. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3605
  4. AOAC International (AOAC). 2007. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed. W. Hortwitz and G. W. Latimer Jr., editors. AOAC Int., Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
  5. Cromwell, G. L., K. L. Herkelman, and T. S. Stahly. 1993. Physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of distillers dried grains with solubles for chicks and pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:679-686.
  6. Kingsly, A. R. P., K. E. Ileleji, C. L. Clementson, A. Garcia, D. E. Maier, R. L. Stroshine, and S. Radcliff. 2010. The effect of process variables during drying on the physical and chemical characteristics of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) - Plant scale experiments. Bioresour. Technol. 101:193-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.07.070
  7. Ganesan, V., K. Muthukumarappan, and K. A. Rosentrater. 2008. Effect of moisture content and soluble level on the physical, chemical, and flow properties of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Cereal Chem. 85:464-470. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-85-4-0464
  8. Jacela, J. Y., J. M. DeRouchey, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. L. Nelssen, R. C. Sulabo, R. C. Thaler, L. Brandts, D. E. Little, and K. J. Prusa. 2011. Amino acid digestibility and energy content of deoiled (solvent-extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles for swine and effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 89:1817-1829. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3097
  9. Kil, D. Y. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Dietary soybean oil and choice white grease improve apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in swine diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 24:248-253.
  10. Kingsly, A. R. P. and K. E. Ileleji. 2009. Sorption isotherm of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and its prediction using chemical composition. Food Chem. 116:939-946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.050
  11. Lenis, N. P., P. Bikker, J. van der Meulen, J. T. van Diepen, J. G. Bakker, and A. W. Jongbloed. 1996. Effect of dietary neutral detergent fiber on ileal digestibility and portal flux of nitrogen and amino acids and on nitrogen utilization in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2687-2699.
  12. Li, S. and W. C. Sauer. 1994. The effect of dietary fat content on amino acid digestibility in young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1737-1743.
  13. Liu, K. 2011. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 59:1508-1526. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf103512z
  14. Pahm, A. A., C. Pedersen, D. Hoehler, and H. H. Stein. 2008. Factors affecting the variability in ileal amino acid digestibility in corn distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2180-2189. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-0868
  15. Martinez-Amezcua, C., C. M. Parsons, V. Singh, R. Srinivasan, and G. S. Murthy. 2007. Nutritional characteristics of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as affected by the amounts of grains versus solubles and different processing techniques. Poult. Sci. 86:2624-2630. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00137
  16. NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  17. NRC. 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  18. Pedersen, C., M. G. Boersma, and H. H. Stein. 2007. Digestibility of energy and phosphorus in ten samples of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1168-1176. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-252
  19. Probst, K. V., K. E. Ileleji, R. P. K. Ambrose, C. L. Clementson, A. A. Garcia, and C. A. Ogden. 2013. The effect of condensed distillers solubles on the physical and chemical properties of maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using bench scale experiments. Biosyst. Eng. 115:221-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.10.007
  20. Ren, P., Z. Zhu, B. Dong, J. Zang, and L. Gong. 2011. Determination of energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed corn distillers' dried grains with solubles containing different lipid levels. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 65:303-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2011.588849
  21. Saunders, J. A. and K. A. Rosentrater. 2009. Properties of solvent extracted low-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Biomass Bioenergy 33:1486-1490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.07.004
  22. Schulze, H., P. van Leeuwen, M. W. Verstegen, and J. W. van den Berg. 1995. Dietary level and source of neutral detergent fiber and ileal endogenous nitrogen flow in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:441-448.
  23. Stein, H. H., C. F. Shipley, and R. A. Easter. 1998. Technical note: a technique for inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of pregnant sows. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1433-1436.
  24. Soares, J. A., H. H. Stein, V. Singh, G. S. Shurson, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2012. Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1255-1261. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3691
  25. Stein, H. H., S. P. Connot, and C. Pedersen. 2009a. Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with soluble produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1016-1025. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80484
  26. Stein, H. H., B. Seve, M. F. Fuller, P. J. Moughan, and C. F. M. de Lange. 2007. Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: Terminology and application. J. Anim. Sci. 85:172-180. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-742
  27. Stein, H. H., M. L. Gibson, C. Pedersen, and M. G. Boersma. 2006. Amino acid and energy digestibility in ten samples of distillers dried grain with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:853-860.
  28. Stein, H. H. and G. C. Shurson. 2009b. Board-Invited review: The use and application of distillers dried grains with solubles in swine diets. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1292-1303. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1290
  29. Urriola, P. E., L. J. Johnston, H. H. Stein, and G. C. Shurson. 2013. Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4389-4396. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6362
  30. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  31. Williams, C. H., D. J. David, and O. Iismaa. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in faeces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J. Agric. Sci. 59:381-385. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185960001546X

Cited by

  1. Effects of liquid feeding of corn condensed distiller’s solubles and whole stillage on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and sensory traits of pigs vol.8, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-016-0140-6
  2. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diverse barley cultivars fed to growing pigs vol.88, pp.12, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12857