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A Study on the Spatial Structure and landscape techniques of the Central Government Office(中央官衙) reviewed through the 'Sukchunjeado(宿踐諸衙圖)'

'숙천제아도(宿踐諸衙圖)'를 통해 본 조선시대 중앙관아의 공간구조와 조경기법

  • Shin, Sang-sup (Dept. of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, Woosuk University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-wuk (Dept. of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, Woosuk University) ;
  • Park, Young-kwan (Graduated School, Woosuk University)
  • 신상섭 (우석대학교 조경도시디자인학과) ;
  • 김현욱 (우석대학교 조경도시디자인학과) ;
  • 박영관 (우석대학교 대학원)
  • Received : 2014.02.25
  • Accepted : 2014.08.02
  • Published : 2014.09.30

Abstract

Han Pilgyo (1807~1878) was a scholar-official in the later period of the Joseon Dynasty. The research results on spatial structure and landscape techniques of the central government office reviewed through the Sukcheonjeado(宿踐諸衙圖) album collection edited by Han Pilgyo are as follows. First, Sukcheonjeado(宿踐諸衙圖) using Sabangjeondomyobeob(四方顚倒描法, a Korean traditional drawing type) is uniquely proven historical data which helps to understand the spatial structure of the center and local government offices and the characteristics of cultural landscape. Secondly, the central government office located in Yookcho(六曹) Street which is the outside Gwanghwamun(光化門) of the Main Palace(Gyeongbokgung, 景福宮) of the Joseon Dynasty has a center facility(Dangsangdaecheong, 堂上大廳) and attached buildings which are distributed from high to low or from left to right, according to its order of presidency in square-shaped portion of land. The main building was located facing south and by considering the administrative convenience, the environmental effect and the practice of Confucian norms this structure reflects a hierarchical landuse system. Thirdly, the main buildings such as Dangsangdaecheong and Hyangcheong(鄕廳), which are the working place for government officials had large square front yards for constructing a practical patio garden. The back garden was tended to reflect the meaning landscape, with such as pond and pavilion. A particular point was the repeated crossing of active space and passive space(movement and stillness, building and yard, yard and garden), which implements the Yin-Yang principle. Fourth, the characteristics that can be extracted from the central government office landscapes are (1) expandability of outdoor space, connects of front gardens, emphasizes the characteristic of serviceable gardens and back gardens, which in turn emphasizes scenic sides, (2) introduction of water features(square-shaped ponds) that can be used as fire-water and considers environmental-amenity and landscape characteristics, (3) introduction of pavilions for relaxation, mental and physical discipline, and the development of back gardens, (4) significance of Jeongsimsoo(庭心樹) in such things as selection of concise landscape plants like lotus, willow, pine, zelkova and so on, and limited plant introduction, (5) environmental design techniques which set importance on not only aesthetics and ideality but also practical value. Thus, these aspects of the government office landscape can be said to be the universality and particularity of Korean traditional landscape technique and can be extracted similarly in the palaces, temples, lecture halls, and houses of the upper class of the Joseon Dynasty.