A Study on Differences between Academic Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety of Middle School Students depending on Gender and English Achievement

성별과 영어 학업성취도에 따른 중학생의 학업적 자기효능감과 시험불안 차이 연구

  • Received : 2014.10.02
  • Accepted : 2014.11.12
  • Published : 2014.11.28


The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are differences in academic self-efficacy and test anxiety between two groups(depending on gender and English achievement levels) of Korean middle school students. The subjects are 98 students who are 36 male and 62 female students. Two Questionnaires were administered to measure the learners' academic self-efficacy and test anxiety level. And the collected data were analyzed by t-test to examine the differences between two groups. The results of this study showed that there were statistically very significant differences in academic self-efficacy and test anxiety between two(male-female) groups. But there were no differences statistically in academic self-efficacy and test anxiety between two(high level-low level) groups. Further studies need to be conducted carefully considering the limitations of this study in terms of its instruments and subjects. Also the differences in other affective variables between two groups need to be studied in the future.


  1. 박병기, 임신일, "시험불안 관련변인의 메타분석", 교육심리연구, 제24권, 제4호, pp.875-894, 2010.
  2. J. C. Gregory and S. B. Samantha, Addressing test anxiety in a high-stakes environment, America: Corwin, 2006.
  3. A. Bandura, "Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change," Psychological Review, Vol.84, pp.191-215, 1977.
  4. A. Bandura, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p.391, 1986.
  5. A. Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, New York: Freeman, 1997.
  6. D. H. Schunk and F. Pajares, The development of academic SE. In A. Wigfield & J. Eccles(Eds), Development of achievement motivation, pp.16-31, San Diego: Academic Press, 2002.
  7. 김아영, 박인영, "학업적 자기효능감 척도개발 및 타당화 연구", 교육학연구, 제39권, 제1호, pp.95-123, 2001.
  8. 염시창, 박현주, "일반계 여고생의 완벽주의, 학업적 자기효능감 및 시험불안의 관계모형 검증", 한국심리학회지: 학교, 제2권, 제1호, pp.19-35.
  9. P. R. Pintrich and E. V. De Groot, "Motivational and self-regulated learning component of classroom academic performance," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.82, pp.33-40, 1990.
  10. F. Pajares and D. H. Schunk, Self-beliefs and school success: self-efficasy, self-concept, and school achievement. In R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.) perception, pp.239-266, London: Ablex Publishing, 2001.
  11. D. H. Schunk, Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In I. B. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement, London: Lawrence Erblaum Associates Publishers, pp.125-151, 2001.
  12. H. L. Yang and H. H. Cheng, "Creative self-efficacy and its factors: an empirical study of information system analysts and Programmers," Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.25, pp.429-438, 2009.
  13. 김아영, "학업적 자아효능감 척도 개발 및 타당화 연구", 교육학연구, 제39권, 제2호, pp.95-123, 2001.
  14. R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and K. D. Larkin, "Relation of self-efficacy expectations to academic achievement and persistence," Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol.31, pp.356-362, 1984.
  15. B. J. Zimmerman, "A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.81, pp.329-339, 1989.
  16. A. Bandura, "Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning," Educational Psychologist, Vol28, pp.117-148, 1993.
  17. A. Bandura and D. H. Schunk, "Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.41, pp.586-598, 1981.
  18. K. D. Multon, S. D. Brown, and R. W. Lent, "Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes," A meta-analytic investigation, Journal of Counselling. Psychology, Vol.38, No.1, pp.30-38, 1991.
  19. N. Mills, F. Pjares, and C. Herron, SE of college intermediate French students: relation to achievement and motivation[Electronic version], Language Learning, Vol.57, No.3, 2007.
  20. B. J. Zimmerman and M. Martinez Pons, "Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.82, pp.51-59, 1990.
  21. S. L. Britner and F. Pajares, "Efficacy Beliefs, motivation, race and gender in middle school science," Journal of Woman and Minorities in science and Engineering, Vol.7, pp.271-285, 2001.
  22. F. Pajares, "Gender and perceived SE in self-regulated learnin," Theory in Practice, Vol.41, pp.116-125, 2002b.
  23. N. Mills, F. Pjares, and C. Herron, A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: SE, anxiety and their relation to reading and listening proficiency[Electronic version], Foreign Language Annals, Vol.39, pp.276-293, 2006.
  24. F. Pajares and G. Valiante, "Influence of self-efficacy on elementary students' writing," Journal of Educational Research, Vol.90, No.6, pp.353-360, 2001.
  25. A. Wigfield, J. S. Eccles, and P. R. Pintrich, Development between theages of 11 and 25. In D. C. Berliner & R .C. Calfee (Eds.). Handbook of Educational psychology, pp.148-185, New York: Simon & Schuster/Macmillan, 1996.
  26. M. S. Chapell, Z. B. Blanding, M. E. Silverstein, M. Takahashi, B. Newman, A. Gubi, and N. McCann, "Test anxiety and academic performance in undergraduate and graduate students," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.97, No.2, pp.268-274, 2005,
  27. C. D. Spielberger and P. R. Vagg, Test anxiety: A Transactiona Process Model, In Spielberger et al.(Eds), Test anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment, Taylor & Francis, pp.1-14, 1995.
  28. M. Zeidner, Test anxiety: The state of the art, New York: Pleum, 1998.
  29. L. Morris, M. Davis, and C. Hutchings, "Cognitive and emotional components of anxiety: Literature review and a revised worry-emotionality scale," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.73, No.4, pp.541-555, 1981.
  30. 임용우, 시험스트레스 과정에서의 불안, 대체 및 학업성취, 서울대학교 대학원 박사학위논문, 1994.
  31. E. U. Onyeizugbo, "Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety as Correlates of Academic Performance," Journal of Educational Research, Vol.1, No.10, pp.477-48, 2010.
  32. E. J. Ginter, J. J. Scalise, R. R. Mcknight, and F. G. Miller, "SuinnTest Anxiety Behavior Scale," Journal of Normative Data for Psychological Report, Vol.50, pp.1114-1118, 1982.
  33. A. Feingold, "Gender Differences in Personality: A Metaanalysis," Psychological Bulletin, Vol.16, pp.429-456, 1994.
  34. F. Pajares and J. kranzler, self_efficacy beliefs and general mental ability in mathematical problem solving, Emory University, University of Florida, 2002.
  35. 김아영,차정은, 자기효능감의 측정. 산업 및 조직 심리학회 동계학술발표대회 논문집, pp.51-64, 1996.
  36. 김아영. "학구적 실패에 대한 내성의 관련변인 연구", 교육심리연구, 제11권, 제2호, pp.1-19, 1997.
  37. 한혜진. 자기주장훈련이 초등학생의 자기효능감 향상에 미치는 효과, 서울교육대학교 교육대학원 석사학위논문, 2002.
  38. 임신일, 박병기, "국내.외 시험불안 연구의 메타 분석", 교육심리연구, 제27권, 제3호, pp.529-553, 2013.
  39. 성종호, 이영식, 이길홍, "청소년의 시험불안에 영향을 미치는 개인 및 사회환경적 변인", 신경정신의학, 제38권, 제3호, pp.571-582, 1999.
  40. Kitano, Kazu, "Anxiety in the college Japanese classroom," Modern Language Journal, Vol.85, pp.549-556, 2001.
  41. 남지연, 자기효능감, 목표지향성, 자기조절학습 전략 및 학업성취와의 관계, 전남대학교 교육대학원 석사학위논문, 2006.
  42. B. G. Turner, D. C. Beidel, S. Hughes, and M. W. Turner, "Test anxiety in African American school children," School Psychology Quarterly, Vol.8, No.2, pp.140-152, 1993.
  43. P. MacIntyre and R. Gardner, "Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning:A review of the literature," Language Learning, Vol.41, pp.85-117, 1991c.
  44. E. T. Aronen, V. Vuontella, M. R. Steenari, J. Salmi, and S. Carson, "Woring memory, psychiatric symptoms, and academic performance at school," Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Elsivier, Vol.83, No.1, pp.33-42, 2004.
  45. R. Hembree, "Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety," Review of Educational Research, Vol.58, pp.47-77, 1998.
  46. 박미정, 최지혜, 이은영, 박미영, "대학생활 특성이 대학 신입생의 우울, 불안 및 신체증상에 미치는 영향", 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제14권, 제1호, pp.346-355, 2014.