Predictors Affecting Breast Self-Examination Practice among Turkish Women

  • Doganer, Yusuf C. (Department of Family Medicine, Turkish Military Academy, Primary Care Examination Center) ;
  • Aydogan, Umit (Department of Family Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Kilbas, Zafer (Department of General Surgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Rohrer, James E. (Department of Family Medicine, Mayo Clinic) ;
  • Sari, Oktay (Department of Family Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Usterme, Necibe (Department of Family Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Yuksel, Servet (Department of Family Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Akbulut, Halil (Department of Family Medicine, 4th Air Force Base) ;
  • Balkan, Salih M. (Department of General Surgery, TOBB ETU Hospital) ;
  • Saglam, Kenan (Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy) ;
  • Tufan, Turgut (Department of General Surgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy)
  • 발행 : 2014.11.06


Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among females in Turkey. Predictors affecting the breast self-examination (BSE) performance vary in developing countries. Objective: To determine the frequency of BSE performance and predictors of self-reported BSEs among women in the capital city of Turkey. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 Turkish women using a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables and BSE-related features. Results: Of the participants, 78.7% (N=296) reported practicing BSE, whereas 9.5% (N=28) were implementing BSE regularly on a monthly basis, and only 5.7% (N=17) were performing BSE regularly within a week after each menstrual cycle. Multivariate logistic regression modeling revealed that BSE performance was more likely in younger age groups [20-39 years] (p=0.018, OR=3.215) and [40-49 years] (p=0.009, OR=3.162), women having a family history of breast disease (p=0.038, OR=2.028), and housewives (p=0.013, OR=0.353). Conclusions: Although it appears that the rates of BSE performers are high, the number of women conducting appropriate BSE on a regular time interval basis is lower than expected. Younger age groups, family history of breast diseases and not being employed were identified as significant predictors of practicing BSE appropriately. Older age and employment were risk factors for not performing BSE in this sample.


  1. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Said SM, et al (2013). Beliefs and behavior of Malaysia undergraduate female students in a public university toward breast self-examination practice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 57-61.
  2. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Alabsi AM, et al (2012). Exploration of barriers to breast-self examination among urban women in Shah Alam, Malaysia: a cross sectional study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 1627-32.
  3. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV, Al-Jashamy K (2012). Practice of breast self-examination among women in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 3829-33.
  4. Allen TL, Van Groningen BJ, Barksdale DJ, et al (2010). The breast self-examination controversy: What providers and patients should know. J Nurse Practitioners, 6, 444-51.
  5. Anderson BO (2010). Understanding social obstacles to early breast cancer detection is critical to improving breast cancer outcome in low- and middle-resource countries. Cancer, 116, 4436-9.
  6. Avci IA (2008). Factors associated with breast self-examination practices and beliefs in female workers at a Muslim community. Eur J Oncol Nurs, 12, 127-33.
  7. Bener A, El Ayoubi HR, Moore MA, et al (2009). Do we need to maximise the breast cancer screening awareness? Experience with an endogamous society with high fertility. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 599-604.
  8. Corbex M, Burton R, Sancho-Garnier H (2012). Breast cancer early detection methods for low and middle income countries, a review of the evidence. Breast, 21, 428-34.
  9. Dundar PE, Ozmen D, Ozturk B, et al (2006). The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in western Turkey. BMC Cancer, 6, 43.
  10. Ghazali SM, Othman Z, Cheong KC, et al (2013). Non-practice of breast self examination and marital status are associated with delayed presentation with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 1141-5.
  11. Grosse Frie K, Ramadas K, Anju GA, et al (2013). Determinants of participation in a breast cancer screening trial in Trivandrum district, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7301-7.
  12. Gucuk S, Uyeturk U (2013). Effect of direct education on breast self examination awareness and practice among women in Bolu, Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7707-11.
  13. Jahan S, Al-Saigul AM, Abdelgadir MH (2006). Breast cancer. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of breast self examination among women in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J, 27, 1737-41.
  14. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90.
  15. Karayurt O, Dramali A (2007). Adaptation of champion's health belief model scale for Turkish women and evaluation of the selected variables associated with breast self-examination. Cancer Nurs, 30, 69-77.
  16. Khalili AF, Shahnazi M (2010). Breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, and mammography) in women referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran. Indian J Med Sci, 64, 149-62.
  17. Kilic S, Ucar M, Seymen E, et al (2006). Determination of the knowledge and practice level of breast self-examination among the nurses of the GATA hospital, the students of the GATA nursing school and some female patients. Gulhane Med J, 48, 200-4.
  18. Ma I, Dueck A, Gray R, et al (2012). Clinical and self breast examination remain important in the era of modern screening. Ann Surg Oncol, 19, 1484-90.
  19. Mbanaso A, Adisa A, Onuoha C, et al (2005). Status of breast self examination among health professsional of abia state university teaching hospital. J Exp Clin Anat, 4, 55-7.
  20. Okobia MN, Bunker CH, Okonofua FE, et al (2006). Knowledge, attitude and practice of nigerian women towards breast cancer: a cross-sectional study. World J Surg Oncol, 4, 11.
  21. Ozmen V (2008). Breast cancer in the world and Turkey. J Breast Health, 4, 2-4.
  22. Ozmen V, Boylu S, Ok E, et al (2014). Factors affecting breast cancer treatment delay in Turkey: a study from Turkish Federation of Breast Diseases Societies. Eur J Public Health.
  23. Panieri E (2012). Breast cancer screening in developing countries. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 26, 283-90.
  24. Parvani Z (2011). Breast self examination; breast awareness and practices of systematic review. Professional Med J, 18.
  25. Ravichandran K, Al-Hamdan NA, Mohamed G (2011). Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice. J Family Community Med, 18, 135-42.
  26. Semiglazov VF, Manikhas AG, Moiseenko VM, et al (2003). Results of a prospective randomized investigation [Russia (St.Petersburg)/WHO] to evaluate the significance of selfexamination for the early detection of breast cancer. Vopr Onkol, 49, 434-41 (in Russian).
  27. Silva TB, Mauad EC, Carvalho AL, et al (2013). Difficulties in implementing an organized screening program for breast cancer in Brazil with emphasis on diagnostic methods. Rural Remote Health, 13, 2321.
  28. Thomas DB, Gao DL, Ray RM, et al (2002). Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: final results. J Natl Cancer Inst, 94, 1445-57.
  29. Wilke LG, Broadwater G, Rabiner S, et al (2009). Breast selfexamination: defining a cohort still in need. Am J Surg, 198, 575-9.
  30. Wong-Kim E, Wang CC (2006). Breast self-examination among Chinese immigrant women. Health Educ Behav, 33, 580-90.
  31. Yurdakos K, Gulhan YB, Unalan D, et al (2013). Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of women working in government hospitals regarding breast self examination. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4829-34.

피인용 문헌

  1. Predictors of Progress in the Stage of Adoption of Breast Cancer Screening for Korean Women vol.16, pp.7, 2015,
  2. Barriers to breast self examination practice among Malaysian female students: a cross sectional study vol.4, pp.1, 2015,
  3. Predictors affecting breast self-examination practice among undergraduate female students in Klang Valley, Malaysia vol.41, pp.12, 2015,