Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Northeastern Thai Blood Samples

  • Barusrux, Sahapat (Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Sengthong, Chatchawan (Medical Technology Laboratory, Bangkrathum hospital) ;
  • Urwijitaroon, Yupa (Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University)
  • Published : 2014.11.06


Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of liver cancer in Thailand. The highest prevalence of anti-HCV positive among Thai blood donors is found in the northeastern region. The present analysis of the genotype distribution among anti-HCV positive northeastern-Thai blood donors was conducted to provide a base for the epidemiological pattern of HCV infection in this region. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 HCV seropositive healthy blood donors were randomly selected and tested for the presence of HCV-RNA by RT-PCR. HCV-RNA positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing at core region genomes and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Results: HCV viremia was found in 94.6% (106/112) of HCV seropositive blood donors. There were 3 major genotypes distributed among this population. HCV genotype 3a was the most prevalent (71.7%) followed by genotypes 1a (7.5%), 1b (7.5%), 6i (3.8%), 6f (2.8%) and 6n (1.9%). Conclusions: HCV genotype 3a in asymptomatic infections in northeastern Thailand is significantly higher than other previous reports. Subgenotype 6 prevalence is less than in neighboring countries and distribution patterns differ. The findings are relevant as predictors for using interferon therapy in this population.


Supported by : Khon Kaen University


  1. Apichartpiyakul C, Chittivudikarn C, Miyajima H, Homma M, Hotta H (1994). Analysis of hepatitis of hepatitis C virus isolates among healthy blood donors and drug addicts in Chiang Mai, Thailand. J Clin Microbiol, 32, 2276-9.
  2. Akkarathamrongsin S, Praianantathavorn K, Hacharoen N, et al (2010). Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 subtypes in Thailand. J Med Virol, 82, 257-62.
  3. Akkarathamrongsin S, Praianantathavorn K, Hacharoen N, et al (2011). Seroprevalence and genotype of hepatitis C virus among immigrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar in Thailand. Intervirology, 54, 10-6.
  4. Apichartpiyakul C, Apichartpiyakul N, Urwijitaroon Y, et al (1999). Seroprevalence and subtype distribution of hepatitis C virus among blood donors and intravenous users in Northern/Northeastern Thailand. Jpn J Infect Dis, 52, 121-3.
  5. Barusrux S, Nanok C, Bhudhisawasdi V, Pairojkul C, Poovorawan Y (2012). Viral hepatitis B, C infection and genotype distribution among cholangiocarcinoma patients in northeast Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 985-8.
  6. Barusrux S, Urwijitaroon Y, Puapairoj C, Romphruk A, Sriwanitchrak P (1997). Association of HCV and treponema pallidum infection in HIV infected northeastern Thai male blood donors. J Med Assoc Thai, 80, 106-11.
  7. Barusrux S, Urwijitaroon Y, Romphruk A, Puapairoj C (1995). Preliminary survey of anti-HTLV-I in northeastern-thais. J Med Assoc Thai, 78, 628-30.
  8. Barusrux S, Urwijitaroon Y (2006). High prevalence of HGV coinfection with HBV or HCV among northeastern Thai blood donors. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 37, 289-93.
  9. Chainuvati T, Poovorawan Y, Luengrojanakul P (1991). The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody in high-risk group of Thai children and adults. Gastroenterol Jpn, 26, 176-8.
  10. Felsenstein J (1985). Confidence limits on Phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution, 39, 783-91.
  11. Cheng P, Cheng Y, Su MX, et al (2012). Bicluster and pathway enrichment analysis of HCV-induced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 3741-5.
  12. Chomczynski P, Sacchi N (1996). Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenolchlorofrom extraction. Anal Biochem, 34, 417-23.
  13. Fan JH, Wang JB, Jiang Y (2013). Attributable causes of liver cancer mortality and incidence in china. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7251-6.
  14. Felsenstein J (1993). PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package), distributed by the author, department of genetics, university of Washington, seattle.
  15. Gojobori T, Ishii K, Nei M (1982). Estimation of average number of nucleotides substitutions when the rate of substitution varies with nucleotide. J Mol Evol, 18, 414-23.
  16. Haddock RL, Paulino YC, Bordallo R (2013). Viral hepatitis and liver cancer on the Island of Guam. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3175-6.
  17. Halfon P, Khiri H, Gerolami V, et al (1996). Impact of various handing and storage conditions on quantitative detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. J Hepatol, 25, 307-11.
  18. Hansurabhanon T, Jiraphongsa C, Tunsakun P, et al (2002). Infection with hepatitis C virus among intravenous-drug users: prevalence, genotypes and risk-factor-associated behavior patterns in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 96, 615-25.
  19. Hotta H, Kemapunmanus M, Apichartpiyakul C, et al (1997). Differential distribution of hepatitis C virus subtypes in Asia: comparative study among Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health, 28, 23-31.
  20. Kanistanon D, Neelamek M, Dharakul T, Songsivilai S (1997). Genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in different regions of Thailand. J Clin Microbiol, 35, 1772-6.
  21. Jeng JE, Tsai MF, Tsai HR (2014). Impact of chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C on adverse hepatic fibrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma related to betel quid chewing. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 637-42.
  22. Jemal A, Bray D, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90.
  23. Jose M, Curtu S, Gajardo R, Jorquera JI (2003). The effect of storage at different temperatures on the stability of hepatitis C virus RNA in plasma samples. Biologicals, 31, 1-8.
  24. Lole KS, Jha JA, Shrotri SP, et al (2003). Comparison of hepatitis C virus genotyping by 5'non-coding region and core based reverse transcriptase PCR assay with sequencing and use of the assay for determining subtype distribution in India. J Clin Microbiol, 41, 5240-4.
  25. Manns M, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, et al (2001). Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: randomized trail. Lancet, 358, 958-65.
  26. Nguyen MH, Keeffe EB (2004). Epidemiology and treatment outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis C and genotypes 4 to 9. Rev Gastroentero Disord, 4, 14-5.
  27. Pham D, Leuangwutiwong P, Jittmittraphab A, et al (2009). High prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 in Vietnam. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 27, 153-60.
  28. Robertson B, Myers G, Howard C, et al (1998). Classification, nomenclature, and database development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses: proposals for standardization. Arch Virol, 143, 2493-503.
  29. Theamboonlers A, Chinchai T, Bedi K, et al (2002). Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HCV infected Thai blood donors. Acta Virol, 46, 169-73.
  30. Saitou N, Nei M (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogentic tree. Mol Biol Evol, 4, 406-25.
  31. Songsivilai S, Jinathongthai S, Wongsena W, Tiangpitayakorn C, Dharakul T (1997). High prevalence of hepatitis C infection among blood donors in northeastern Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 57, 66-9.
  32. Sunanchaikarn S, Theamboonlers A, Chongsrisawat V, et al (2007). Seroepidemiology and genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Thailand. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 25, 175-82.
  33. Urwijitaroon Y, Barusrux S, Ananthapreecha S (1993). Seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus in northeastern Thai blood donors: a preliminary report. Srinagarind Med J, 8, 48-51.
  34. Xavier F, Bukh J (1998). Methods for determining the hepatitis C genotypes. Viral Hepat Rev, 4, 1-19.
  35. Yong KK, Resnick R, Myers TM (1993). Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA by a combined reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. J Clin Microbiol, 31, 882-6.
  36. Zein NN, Rakela J, Krawitt EL, et al (1996). Hepatitis C virus genotypes in the United State: epidemiology, pathogeneicity, and response to interferon therapy. Ann Intern Med, 125, 634-9.
  37. Zein NN (2000). Clinical significance of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Clin Microbiol Rev, 13, 223-35.
  38. Zekri Ael R, Nassar AA, El-Din El-Rouby MN, et al (2013). Disease progression from chronic hepatitis C to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with increasing DNA promoter methylation. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6721-6.

Cited by

  1. Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia vol.10, pp.5, 2015,
  2. Post HCV Infection Due to MX Gene Stimulation Produced Post Treatment with Imported and Locally Produced Egyptian Biosimilar IFN vol.16, pp.14, 2015,