DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Women Over 20 Years Old on Cervix Cancer in Istanbul, Turkey

  • Onsuz, Muhammed Fatih (University of Osmangazi) ;
  • Hidiroglu, Seyhan (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Marmara) ;
  • Sarioz, Abdullah (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Marmara) ;
  • Metintas, Selma (University of Osmangazi) ;
  • Karavus, Melda (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Marmara)
  • Published : 2014.11.06

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of Turkish women over 20 years old on cervix cancer. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed at a primary care center covering 246 women using a questionnaire composed of 3 sections and 38 questions. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test in univariate analysis and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 93.7% women who knew about cervical cancer, 68.0% of them had heard pap smear test and 46.1% had actually undergone a Pap smear once or more throughout their lives. According to the results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis about factors affecting the Pap smear test; in Model 1, increase in age and education levels, in Model 2 and Model 3 increase in age and cervical cancer information points were determined. The most important information source for cervical cancer was TV-radio/media (59.9%) and health care workers (62.8%) for pap smear test. Conclusions: Although most women have heard of cervical cancer, knowledge about cervical cancer and also Pap smear screening rate are significantly lower. Having Pap smear test for women was affected by age and knowledge level about cervical cancer. Informing women about cervical cancer would be an important intervention.

Keywords

Cervical cancer;Pap smear test;knowledge;screening behavior;Turkey

References

  1. Al-Azri M, Al-Rasbi K, Al-Hinai M, Davidson R, Al-Maniri A (2014). Awareness of risk factors for cancer among Omani adults- a community cased Study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 5401-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5401
  2. Al-Darwish AA, Al-Naim AF, Al-Mulhim KS, et al (2014). Knowledge about cervical cancer early warning signs and symptoms, risk factors and vaccination among students at a medical school in Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2529-32. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.6.2529
  3. Bray F, Ren JS, Masuyer E, Ferlay J (2013). Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. Int J Cancer, 132, 1133-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27711
  4. Ball C, Madden JE (2003). Update on cervical cancer screening. Current diagnostic and evidence-based management protocols. Postgrad Med, 113, 59-64.
  5. Baskaran P, Subramanian P, Rahman RA, et al (2013). Perceived susceptibility, and cervical cancer screening benefits and barriers in Malaysian women visiting outpatient clinics. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7693-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.12.7693
  6. Bekar M, Guler H, Evcili F, Demirel G, Duran O (2013). Determining the knowledge of women and their attitudes regarding gynecological cancer prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6055-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.6055
  7. Budkaew J, Chumworathayi B (2014). Factors associated with decisions to attend cervical cancer screening among women aged 30-60 years in Chatapadung Contracting Medical Unit, Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 4903-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4903
  8. Coskun S, Can H, Turan S (2013). Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and Pap smear testing behavior among female primary health care workers: a study from South Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6389-92. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.6389
  9. Demirhindi H, Nazlican E, Akbaba M (2012). Cervical cancer screening in Turkey: A community-based experience after 60 years of Pap smear usage. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 6497-500. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.12.6497
  10. Demirtas B, Acikgoz I (2013). Promoting attendance at cervical cancer screening: understanding the relationship with Turkish womens' health beliefs. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 333-40. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.333
  11. Dinc A (2013). Pap smear screening results for Turkish pregnant women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 981-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.2.981
  12. Ertem G (2009). Awareness of cervical cancer risk factors and screening behaviour among nurses in a rural region of Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 735-8.
  13. Erbil N, Tezcan Y, Gur EN, Yildirim M, Alis N (2011). Factors affecting cervical screening among Turkish women. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 11, 1641-4.
  14. Ersan G, Kose S, Gunes H, Ozkan M (2012). Knowledge and awareness of female sex workers towards human papillomavirus infection in Turkey. Cent Eur J Public Health, 20, 219-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-011-0454-y
  15. Ersin F, Bahar Z (2013). Barriers and facilitating factors perceived in Turkish women's behaviors towards early cervical cancer detection: a qualitative approach. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4977-82. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.9.4977
  16. Gan DEH, Dahlui M (2013). Cervical screening uptake and its predictors among rural women in Malaysia. Singapore Med J, 54, 163-8. https://doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2013047
  17. Getahun F, Mazengia F, Abuhay M, Birhanu Z (2013). Comprehensive knowledge about cervical cancer is low among women in Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Cancer, 13, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-2
  18. Ghojazadeh M, Azar ZF, Saleh P, Naghavi-Behzad M, Azar NG (2012). Knowledge and attitude of Iranian university students toward human papilloma virus. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 13, 6115-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.12.6115
  19. Gonzalez P, Castaneda SF, Mills PJ, et al (2012). Determinants of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening adherence in Mexican American women. J Community Health, 37, 421-3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-011-9459-2
  20. Gyenwali D, Pariyar J, Onta SR (2013). Factors associated with late diagnosis of cervical cancer in Nepal. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4373-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.7.4373
  21. Hoque ME, Ghuman S, Van Hal G (2013). Human papillomavirus vaccination acceptability among female university students in South Africa. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4865-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4865
  22. Khoo CL, Teoh S, Rashid AK, et al (2011). Awareness of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination and its affordability among rural folks in Penang Malaysia. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 12, 1429-33.
  23. Imam SZ, Rehman F, Zeeshan MM, et al (2008). Perceptions and practices of a Pakistani population regarding cervical cancer screening. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 9, 42-4.
  24. Karabulutlu O (2013). Evaluation of the Pap smear test status of Turkish women and related factors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 981-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.2.981
  25. Karadag G, Gungormus Z, Surucu R, Savas E, Bicer F (2014). Awareness and Practices regarding breast and cervical cancer among Turkish women in Gazientep. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1093-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1093
  26. Kritpetcharat O, Wutichouy W, Sirijaichingkul S, Kritpetcharat P (2012). Comparison of Pap smear screening results between Akha Hill Tribe and urban women in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 13, 5501-4. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.11.5501
  27. Kruiroongroj S, Chaikledkaew U, Thavorncharoensap M (2014). Knowledge, acceptance, and willingness to pay for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination among female parents in Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 5469-74. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5469
  28. Li ZF, Wang SM, Shi JF, et al (2012). Combined screening of cervical cancer, breast cancer and reproductive tract infections in rural China. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 13, 3529-33. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.7.3529
  29. Markman M (2007). Human papillomavirus vaccines to prevent cervical cancer. Lancet, 369, 1837-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60828-9
  30. Moosa NY, Khattak N, Alam MI, et al (2014). Comparison of cervical cell morphology using two different cytology techniques for early detection of pre-cancerous lesions. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 975-81. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.2.975
  31. Paul P, LaMontagne SD, Le TN (2012). Knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine post-vaccination among mothers and daughters in Vietnam. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 2587-92. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.6.2587
  32. Ortashi O, Raheel H, Shalal M, Osman N (2013). Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and vaccination among women in UAE. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6077-80. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.6077
  33. Ozyer S, Uzunlar O, Ozler S, et al (2013). Awareness of Turkish female adolescents and young women about HPV and their attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4877-81. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4877
  34. Pandey S, Mishra M, Chandrawati (2012). Human papilloma virus screening in North Indian Women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 2643-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.6.2643
  35. Rashwan H, Ishak I, Sawalludin N (2013). Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 14, 2545-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2545
  36. Raychaudhuri S, Mandal S (2012). Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors for cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice in rural and urban areas of North Bengal, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 1093-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1093
  37. Reis N, Bebis H, Kose S, et al (2012). Knowledge, behavior and beliefs related to cervical cancer and screening among Turkish women. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 13, 1463-70. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1463
  38. Sahin MK, Sahin G, Dikici MF, Igde FA, Yaris F (2014). Women's perceptions and attitudes about cervical cancer in Turkey: Kato's device as an alternative to the pap smear. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 15, 905-10. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.2.905
  39. Shekhar S, Sharma C, Thakur S, Raina N (2013). Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of Rural India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 981-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.2.981
  40. TC Saglik Bakanligi (2014). Turkiye Kanser Istatistikleri. (Ed; Gultekin M, Boztas G), Turkiye Halk Sagligi Kurumu, Ankara, Turkey.
  41. Sogukpinar N, Saydam BK, Can HO, et al (2013). Assessment of cervical cancer risk in women between 15 and 49 years of age: case of Izmir. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 2119-25. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2119
  42. Suh M, Choi KS, Lee YY, Park B, Jun JK (2013). Cancer screening in Korea, 2012: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6459-63. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.6459
  43. Tasci-Duran E, Unsal-Atan S (2013). Does hopelessness of Turkish women affect their behavior regarding cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis? Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 14, 2085-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2085
  44. Thippeveeranna C, Mohan SS, Singh LR, Singh NN (2013). Knowledge, attitude and practice of the Pap Smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in North Eastern India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 849-52. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.2.849
  45. Thulaseedharan JV, Malila N, Hakama M, et al (2012). Socio demographic and reproductive risk factors for cervical cancer- a large prospective cohort study from Rural India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 2991-5. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.6.2991
  46. Tran NT, Taylor R, Choe SI, et al (2011). Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) concerning cervical cancer and screening among rural and urban female healthcare practitioners in the democratic people's republic of Korea. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 3023-8.
  47. Uysal A, Birsel A (2009). Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and Pap testing behaviour among Turkish women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 345-50.
  48. Vaisy A, Lotfinejad S, Zhian F (2014). Risk of cancer with combined oral contraceptive use among Iranian women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 5517-22. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.14.5517
  49. Wen Y, Pan XF, ZhaoZM, et al (2014). Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine and its correlates among medical students in Southwest China: a multi-center cross-sectional survey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 5773-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.14.5773
  50. Wongwatcharanukul L, Promthet S, Bradshaw P, Jirapornkul C, Tungsrithong N (2014). Factors affecting cervical cancer screening uptake by Hmong Hilltribe women in Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3753-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.8.3753
  51. World Health Organization (2008). Cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccines: key points for policy-makers and health professionals. WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
  52. Yilmazel G, Duman NB (2014). Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about cervical cancer and Human Papilloma Virus vaccination with related factors in Turkish university students. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3699-704. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.8.3699
  53. Zhang B, Zhou AF, Zhu CC, et al (2013). Risk factors for cervical cancer in rural areas of Wuhan China: a matched case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7595-600. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.12.7595

Cited by

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear Test among Women Living in Bojnourd, North East of Iran: a Population-Based Study vol.16, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.5.2013
  2. Level of Knowledge and Behavior of Family Health Personnel Workers in Izmir about Early Diagnosis for Breast and Cervix Cancer vol.16, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.6.2501
  3. INADEQUATE PRACTICE RELATED OF THE PAPANICOLAOU TEST AMONG WOMEN vol.26, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-07072017005050015