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Cancer Stem Cells and Stemness Markers in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

  • Patel, Shanaya Saurin (The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute) ;
  • Shah, Kanisha Atul (The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute) ;
  • Shah, Manoj Jashwantbhai (The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute) ;
  • Kothari, Kiran Champaklal (The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute) ;
  • Rawal, Rakesh Mahesh (The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute)
  • Published : 2014.11.06

Abstract

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the world top ten most common cancers with its highest occurrence in the Indian subcontinent and different aggressive and etiological behavioural patterns. The scenario is only getting worst with the 5 year survival rates dropping to 50%, persistent treatment failures and frequent cases of relapse/recurrence. One of the major reasons for these failures is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population of cancer cells that are highly tumourigenic, capable of self-renewal and have the ability to differentiate into cells that constitute the bulk of tumours. Notably, recent evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are especially resistant to conventional therapy and are the "drivers" of local recurrence and metastatic spread. Specific markers for this population have been investigated in HNSCC in the hope of developing a deeper understanding of their role in oral cancer pathogenesis, elucidating novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and newer therapeutic strategies. This review covers the fundamental relevance of almost all the CSC biomarkers established to date with a special emphasis on their impact in the process of oral tumourigenesis and their potential role in improving the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of OSCC patients.

Keywords

Oral squamous cell carcinoma;cancer stem cells;stemness markers;self-renewal and proliferation

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