Field measurements of wind characteristics over hilly terrain within surface layer

  • He, Y.C. (Deparment of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong) ;
  • Chan, P.W. (Hong Kong Observatory) ;
  • Li, Q.S. (Deparment of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong)
  • Received : 2014.01.03
  • Accepted : 2014.08.31
  • Published : 2014.11.25


This paper investigates the topographic effects on wind characteristics over hilly terrain, based on wind data recorded at a number of meteorological stations in or near complex terrain. The multiply data sources allow a more detailed investigation of the flow field than is normally possible. Vertical profiles of mean and turbulent wind components from a Sodar profiler were presented and then modeled as functions of height and wind speed. The correlations between longitudinal and vertical wind components were discussed. The phenomena of flow separation and generation of vortices were observed. The distance-dependence of the topographic effects on gust factors was revealed subsequently. Furthermore, the canyon effect was identified and discussed based on the observations of wind at a saddle point between two mountain peaks. This study aims to further understanding of the characteristics of surface wind over rugged terrain. The presented results are expected to be useful for structural design, prevention of pollutant dispersion, and validation of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models or techniques over complex terrains.


wind characteristics;hilly terrain;profile;flow separation;canyon effect;topographic effect


Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation


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