- Volume 27 Issue 11
DOI QR Code
Effect of Production Phase on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Feed Selection of Broilers Raised on Vegetable Protein Diet
- Hossain, M.A. (School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England) ;
- Islam, A.F. (School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England) ;
- Iji, P.A. (School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England)
- Received : 2013.11.09
- Accepted : 2014.03.31
- Published : 2014.11.01
This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP) diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM). Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP) diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM) or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP) were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (p<0.05) than those on the other diets up to day 7. Body weight gain was highest (p<0.001) on the AP-SBM diet while birds on the CM-AP diet weighed the least at 7 d. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, bone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001) and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01) when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets.
- Hughes, B. O. 1984. The principles underlying choice-feeding behaviour in fowls with special reference to production experiments. World's Poult. Sci. J. 40:141-150. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19840012
- Al-Masri, M. R. 2006. Productive performance and digestive tract size of broiler chicks fed a conventional or all-vegetable ingredient diets. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 30:81-84.
- Bradford, M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72:248-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
- Cruze, V. C., A. C. Pezzato, D. F. Pinheiro, J. C. Goncalves, and J. R. Sartori. 2005. Effects of free-choice feeding on the performance and ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 7:143-150.
- Cerrate, S., Z. Wang, C. Coto, F. Yan, and P. W. Waldroup. 2007. Choice feeding as a means of identifying nutritional needs with two methods of amino acid formulation. Intl. J. Poult. Sci. 6:846-854. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2007.846.854
- Faria, F. D. E., P. S. Rosa, B. S. Viera, M. Macari, and R. L. Furlan. 2005. Protein levels and environmental temperature effects on carcass characteristics, performance, and nitrogen excretion of broiler chickens from 7 to 21 days of age. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 7:247-253.
- Forbes, J. M. 1995. Voluntary Food Intake and Diet Selection in Farm Animals. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. p. 532.
- Hargis, P. H. and C. R. Creger. 1980. Effects of varying dietary protein and energy levels on growth rate and body fat in broilers. Poult. Sci. 59:1499-1504. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0591499
- Hruby, M., M. L., Hamre, and C. N. Coon. 1995. Free choice feeding and three temperature treatments. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 4: 356-365. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/4.4.356
- Hossain, M. A., A. F. Islam, and P. A. Iji. 2012. Energy utilization and performance of broiler chickens raised on diets with vegetable proteins or conventional feeds. Asian J. Poult. Sci. 6:117-128. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajpsaj.2012.117.128
- Hossain, M. A., A. F. Islam, and P. A. Iji. 2013a. Growth responses, excreta quality, nutrient digestibility, bone development and meat yield traits of broiler chickens fed on vegetable or animal protein diets. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 43: 208-218.
- Hossain, M. A., A. F. Islam, and P. A. Iji. 2013b. Impact of exogenous enzymes on micronutrient digestibility, tissue protein contents, and internal enzyme activities of broilers fed on all-vegetable diets. In: Proc. 8th Int. Poult. Show and Semnr., WPSA-BB, Bangladesh. 135-141.
- Hossain, M. A. 2013c. Improving Vegetable Protein Diets for Broiler Chickens. Ph. D. Thesis, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
- Hossain, M. A., A. F. Islam, and P. A. Iji. 2011b. Effects of allvegetable diets on leg abnormalities of broiler chickens. Australas. Med. J. 4:761.
- Moran, E. T. 1985. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in fowl and events through perinatal development. J. Nutr.115: 665-674.
- Iji, P.A., A. Saki, and D. R. Tivey. 2001a. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 1. Intestinal weight and mucosal development. Br. Poult. Sci. 42:505-513. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660120073151
- Iji, P. A., A. Saki, and D. R. Tivey. 2001b. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 2. Development and characteristics of intestinal enzymes. Br. Poult. Sci. 42:514-522. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660120073142
- Liu, H., P. Luo, S. Chen, and S. Shang. 2011. Effects of squid ink on growth performance, antioxidant functions ad immunity in growing broiler chickens. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 24:1752-1756. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11128
- McPherson, G. A. 1985. Lowry program: Elsevier-BIOSOFT, 68 Hills Rd, Cambridge, CB2, ILA, UK.
- Mastika, I. M. 1983. Performance of two strains of growing pullets offered free choice of diets. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia (Eds. D. J. Farrel and P. Vohra). University New England, Australia, p. 21A.
- Mastika, I. M. and R. B. Cumming. 1981. Performance of two strains of broiler chickens offered free choice from different ages. In: Proceedings 4th Australia Poultry and Stock Feed Convention, Perth, Australia. pp.79-85.
- Minitab. 2000. Minitab Statistical Software User's Guide 2: Data Analysis and Quality Tools. Minitab Inc., State College, PA, USA.
- Nitsan, Z., G. Ben-Avraham, Z. Zerof, and I. Nir. 1991. Growth and development of the digestive organs and some enzymes in the broiler chicks after hatching. Br. Poult. Sci. 32:515-523. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669108417376
- Nitsan, Z., Y. Dror, I. Nir, and N. Shapira. 1974. The effects of force-feeding on enzymes of the liver, kidney, pancreas and digestive tract of chicks. Br. J. Nutr. 32:241-247. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19740077
- Rose, S. P., A. Burnett, and R. A. Elmajeed. 1986. Factors affecting the diet selection of choice-fed broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 27:215-224. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668608416874
- Noble, D. O., M. L. Picard, E. A. Dunnington, G. Uzu, A. S. Larsen, and P. B. Siegel. 1993. Food intake adjustment of chicks: Short term reactions of genetic stocks to deficiencies in lysine, methionine or tryptophan. Br. Poult. Sci. 34:725-735. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669308417631
- Picard, M., P. B. Siegel, P. A. Geraert, G. Uzu, and P. E. V. Williams. 1997. Five genetic stock of broilers of different growth potential choose the same protein/energy balance. Pages 117-118. In: Animal Choices (Eds. J. M. Forbes, T. L. J. Laurence, and M. A. Varley). Br. Soc. Anim. Sci. Occas. Publ. 20:117-118.
- Rose, S. P. and I. Kyriazakis 1991. Diet selection of pigs and poultry. Proc. Nutr. Soci. 50:87-98. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS19910014
- Swatson, H. K., P. A. Iji, and R. M. Gous. 2003. Body growth, visceral organ weight and intestinal digestive enzyme of chickens on diets varying in energy and protein contents. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 2:305-311.
- Shrivastava, H. P., V. R. Sadagopan, T. S. Johri, and S. Chand. 1981. Sunflower seed meal for poultry-A review. Indian Poult. Gaz. 65:100-112.
- Shirazi-Beechey, S. P., M. W. Smith, Y. Wang, and P. S. James. 1991. Post-natal development of lamb intestinal digestive enzymes is not regulated by diet. J. Physiol. 437:691-698. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1991.sp018619
- Ullah, M. S., T. N. Pasha, Z. Ali, F. Saima, F. M. Khattak, and Z. Hayat. 2012. Effects of different pre-starter diets on broiler performance, gastrointestinal tract morphometry and carcass yield. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 22:570-575.
- Xavier, S. A. G., J. H. Stringhini, A. B. de Brito, M. B. Cafe, N. S. M. Leandro, M. A. Andrade, and M. Laboissiere. 2012. Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets. R. Bras. Zootec. 41:934-940. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982012000400015
- Yo, T., P. B. Siegel, H. Guerin, and M. Picards. 1997. Selfselection of dietary protein and energy by broilers grown under a tropical climate: Effect of feed particle size on the feed choice. Poult. Sci. 76:1467-1473. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.11.1467
- Zulkifli, I., H. S. ImanRahayu, A. R. Alimon, M. K. Vidyadaran, and S. A. Babjee. 2001. Response of choice-fed Red Jungle Fowl and commercial broiler chickens offered a complete diet, corn and soybean. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1758-1762. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.1758
- Nutritive value of vegetable protein diets for broiler chickens and selection of diets containing different vegetable or animal proteins vol.71, pp.01, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043933915000021
- Short-chain arabinoxylans prepared from enzymatically treated wheat grain exert prebiotic effects during the broiler starter period pp.1525-3171, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex297