Effect of Encapsulating Nitrate in Sesame Gum on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

  • Mamvura, Chiedza Isabel (Department of Animal Science, Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Cho, Sangbuem (Department of Animal Science, Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Mbiriri, David Tinotenda (Department of Animal Science, Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Lee, Hong-Gu (Department of Animal Science and Technology, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Choi, Nag-Jin (Department of Animal Science, Chonbuk National University)
  • Received : 2014.04.17
  • Accepted : 2014.06.28
  • Published : 2014.11.01


Encapsulation is a method used to protect material from certain undesirable environments, for controlled release at a more favorable time and place. Animal productivity would be enhanced if feed additives are delivered to be utilized at their site of action, bypassing the rumen where they are likely to be degraded by microbial action. A novel method of encapsulation with sesame gum was used to coat nitrate, a known enteric methane mitigating agent, and tested for the effect on methane reduction and other in vitro fermentation parameters using rumen fluid from cannulated Hanwoo steers. Orchard grass was used as basal diet for fermentation. The treatments were matrix (1.1 g sesame gum+0.4 g sesame oil cake) only, encapsulated nitrate (matrix+nitrate [21 mM]), free nitrate (21 mM), and a control that contained no additive. Analyses of fermentation parameters were done at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h time periods. In comparison to control, both free and encapsulated nitrate produced significantly reduced (p<0.01) methane (76% less) and also the total volatile fatty acids were reduced. A significantly higher (p<0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen was obtained with the encapsulated nitrate treatment (44%) compared to the free form (28%) and matrix only (20%) (p = 0.014). This might suggest slow release of encapsulated nitrate so that it is fully reduced to ammonia. Thus, this pioneering study found a significant reduction in methane production following the use of sesame gum encapsulated nitrate that shows the potential of a controlled release system in enhancing sustainability of ruminant production while reducing/eliminating the risk of nitrite toxicity.


Supported by : Rural Development Administration


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