Turkish Social Attitudes towards to Cancer Prevention: a Health Belief Model Study

  • Tasci-Duran, Emel (Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing Department, Health Sciences Faculty, Suleyman Demirel Universty) ;
  • Koc, Sukran (Midwifery Department, Health Sciences Faculty, Suleyman Demirel Universty) ;
  • Korkmaz, Medet (Medical Nursing Department, Health Sciences Faculty, Sanko University)
  • Published : 2014.10.11


This research was planned to reveal society's attitude towards cancer and early diagnosis using the health belief model. This study was planned as descriptive research in Isparta. A random sample of n=256 individuals of both genders was recruited at the largest shopping center. As a means of collection tool, a survey consisted of two forms, the first designed for sociodemographic information and the second covering 29 questions suitable for the content of Health Belief Model. Of the participants, 66.8% were female and 33.2% were male, and the average age was $33.3{\pm}11.0$ years. Some 46.1% partly thought that they may develop cancer, and 49.6% were afraid of this possibility. As many as 50% indicated that cancer is an issue that comes from Allah. A significant difference was found between not going for control unless feeling bad, and blood analysis for cancer screening (${\chi}^2=3.780$ p= 0.03). It was seen that in an area with a high rate of cancer, people's awareness of cancer prevention and early diagnosis and attitudes towards these are insufficient.


  1. Agurto A, Agurto MG, Sanchez Z, et al (2004). Perceived barriers and benefits to cervical cancer screening in Latin America. Prev Med, 39, 91-8.
  2. Airhihenbuwa C, Kumanyika S, TenHave T, et al (2000). Cultural identity and health life styles among African Americans: a new direction for health intervention research? Ethnic Disease, 10, 148-64.
  3. American Cancer Society (2011). Cancer facts&figures 2010. Accessed May 28, 2011.
  4. Austin L, Ahmad F, McNally M, et al (2002). Breast and cervical cancer screening in. hispanic women: a literature review using the health belief model. Women's Health Issues, 12, 122-8.
  5. Aydogdu GN, Bahar Z (2011). The effects of using health belief and health promotion models in low-income women with regard to breast and cervical cancer early detection behaviour. DEUHYO ED, 4, 34-40.
  6. Birol L (2007). In: nursing process izmir: etki printing press. pp. 36-49.
  7. Birol L, Akdemir N, Beduk T (1997). Oncology nursing. in: book of internal diseases. ankara: sanem press. pp.120-134.
  8. Boyer LE, Williams M, Calker LC, et al (2001). Hispanic women's perceptions regarding cervical cancer screening. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs, 30, 240-5.
  9. Carey P, Charlton A, Sloper D (1995). Cancer education in secondary schools. Educational Review, 47, 1.
  10. Carlos RC, Underwood W, Fendrick AM, et al (2005). Behavioral associations between prostate and colon cancer screening. J Ame Coll Surg, 200, 217-23.
  11. Cenesiz E, Atak N (2007). The evaluation of the researches in the health belief model in turkey. Koruyucu Hekimlik, 6, 427-34.
  12. Chiu BCH, Anderson JR, Corbin D (2005). Predictors of prostate cancer screening among health fair participants. Pub Health, 119, 686-93.
  13. Cox CL, Montgomery M, Rai SN, et al (2008). Supporting breast self-examination in female childhood cancer survivors: a secondary analysis of a behavioral intervention. Oncol Nurs Forum, 35, 423-30.
  14. Davis TC, Williams MV, Marin E, et al (2002). Health literacy and cancer communication. Cancer J Clin, 52, 134-49.
  15. Elmubarak E, Bromfield E, Bovell-Benjamin AC (2005). Focused interviews with Sudanese Americans: perceptions about diet, nutrition and cancer. Prev Med, 40, 502-09.
  16. Ersin F, Bahar Z (2011). Inhibiting and facilitating factors concerning breast cancer early diagnosis behavior in turkish women: a qualitative study according to the health belief and health development models. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1849-4.
  17. Fisek N (2011). Turkey's health problems and ways to solve them. Accessed May 19, 2011.
  18. Fouladi N, Pourfarzi F, Mazaheri E, et al (2013). Beliefs and behaviors of breast cancer screening in women referring to health care centers in northwest Iran according to the champion health belief model scale. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6857-2.
  19. Gercek S, Duran O, Yildirim G, et al (2008). Determining the breast cancer and self breast examination belief and the effecting factors among the schoolgirls in state dormitory. J Breast Health, 4, 157-61 (in Turkish).
  20. Gozum S, Karayurt O, Aydin I (2004). The results of Turkish adaptations of champion's health belief model scale at breast cancer screening. Hemsirelikte Arastirma Gelistirme Dergisi, 1, 71-85.
  21. Gozum S, Karayurt O, Kav S, et al (2010). Effectiveness of peer education for breast cancer screening and health beliefs in eastern Turkey. Cancer Nursing, 33, 213-20.
  22. Hay JL, McCaul KD, Magnan RE (2006). Does worry about breast cancer predict screening behaviors? A meta-analysis of the prospective evidence. Prev Med 42, 401-08.
  23. Honda K, Neugut AI (2004). Associations between perceived cancer risk and established risk factors in a national community sample. Cancer Detect Prev, 8, 1-7.
  24. Johnson CE, Mues KE, Mayne SL, et al (2008). Cervical cancer screening among immigrants and ethnic minorities: A systematic review using the health belief model. J Low Genit Tract Dis, 12, 232-41.
  25. Karasar N. (1999). Scientific research methods Yedinci Basim, Ankara:3A, Arastirma Egitim Danismanlik Ltd. pp.25-58.
  26. Keeney S, McKenna H, Fleming P, et al (2010). Attitudes to cancer and cancer prevention: what do people aged 35-54 years think? Eur J Cancer Care, 19, 769-77.
  27. KETEM (2011). (2011), Accessed May 5, 2011.
  28. Kharameh ZT, Foroozanfar S, Zamanian H (2014). Psychometric properties of the persian version of champion's health belief model scale for colorectal cancer screening, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 4595-9.
  29. Kilic D, Saglam R, Kara O (2009). The examination of the factors affecting the awereness of breast cancer in college students. J Breast Health, 5, 195-99.
  30. Kwon HT, Solomon FM, Nguyen S (2006). A needs assessment of barriers to cervical cancer screening in vietnamese american health care providers. Californian J Health Promotion, 4, 146-56.
  31. Lemal M, Van den Bulck J (2010). Television news coverage about cervical cancer: impact on female viewers' vulnerability perceptions and fear. Eu J Pub Health, 21, 381-6.
  32. Markovic M, Kesic V, Topic L, et al (2005). Barriers to cervical cancer screening: a qualitative study with women in Serbia. Social Sci Med, 61, 2528-35.
  33. National Cancer Advisory Board of Turkey. (2010). Accessed October 11, 2010.
  34. Phipps E, Cohen MH, Sorn R, et al (1999). A pilot study of cancer knowledge and screening behaviors of vietnamese and cambodian. Health Care Women International, 20, 195-207.
  35. Sirin A, Unsal S, Tasci E (2006). Protection from cancer and early diagnosis applications in Izmir, Turkey. Cancer Nursing, 29, 207-13.
  36. Tasci-Duran E (2011). Examination with the health belief model of women's attitudes to cervical cancer and early diagnosis in turkey: a qualitative study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1179-4.
  37. Tsunematsu M, Kawasaki H, Masuoka Y, et al (2013). Factors affecting breast cancer screening behavior in japanassessment using the health belief model and conjoint analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6041-8.
  38. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Theory at a Glance-a guide for health promotion practice National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute NIH Publication No. 05-3896 Printed September 2005.
  39. Wackerbarth SB, Peters JC, Haist SA (2005). Do we really need all that equipment? Factors influencing colorectal cancer screening decisions. Qualitative Health Res, 15, 539-54.
  40. WHO, Cancer Fact sheet February (2014). Available from: Accessed August 2, 2014.
  41. Williams D, Rucker T (2000). Understanding and addressing racial disparities in health care. Health Care Financing Review, 21, 75-90.
  42. World Health Organization (2002). Diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases: report of the Joint WHO/FAO, Expert Consultation Geneva: 2002.
  43. Young RF, Waller JB. Smitherman H (2002). A breast cancer education and on-site screening intervention for unscreened african american women. J Cancer Educ, 17, 231-36.

Cited by

  1. Predictors of Cancer Awareness among Older Adult Individuals in Jordan vol.15, pp.24, 2015,
  2. Effects of a Cancer Prevention Advertisement on Beliefs and Knowledge about Cancer Prevention vol.16, pp.14, 2015,
  3. Knowledge and Health Belief Attitudes of Oral Cancer and Its Screening Among At-Risk Southern Thai Muslims pp.1543-0154, 2016,
  4. Effectiveness of Health Belief Model on Oral Cancer Prevention in Smoker Men pp.1543-0154, 2018,