Intake of Freshwater Fish and Associated Fatty Acids and Risk of Breast Cancer

  • Gao, Chang-Ming (Division of Epidemiology, Jiangsu Province Institute of Cancer Research) ;
  • Ding, Jian-Hua (Division of Epidemiology, Jiangsu Province Institute of Cancer Research) ;
  • Li, Su-Ping (Division of Epidemiology, Jiangsu Province Institute of Cancer Research) ;
  • Liu, Yan-Ting (Division of Epidemiology, Jiangsu Province Institute of Cancer Research) ;
  • Tang, Jin-Hai (Division of Epidemiology, Jiangsu Province Institute of Cancer Research) ;
  • Tajima, Kazuo (Department of Public Health and Occupational Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine)
  • 발행 : 2014.10.11


To investigate the association between intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total freshwater fish intake was linked to decrease in the adjusted OR for breast cancer, but without dose-dependence. Analyses by freshwater fish species showed that consumption of black carp and silver carp was inversely related to breast cancer risk, with adjusted-ORs for the highest intake category of black carp (${\geq}500g/month$) of 0.54 (95%CI=0.33-0.92; $P_{trend}$ <0.002) and for silver carp (${\geq}1000g/month$) of 0.19 (95%CI=0.11-0.33; $P_{trend}$ <0.001). In contrast, consumption of crucian carp was positively related to breast cancer risk, with an adjusted OR for the highest intake category (${\geq}1000g/month$) of 6.09 (95%CI=3.04-12.2; $P_{trend}$ <0.001). Moderate intakes of SFA, PUFA, n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA from freshwater fish may decrease the risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The findings of this study suggest that intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids may modify risk of breast cancer, and that different species of freshwater fish could have a different actions on breast cancer risk. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to know the effects of freshwater fish intake on breast cancer risk and the cause of these effects.


  1. Bao PP, Shu XO, Zheng Y, et al (2012). Fruit, vegetable, and animal food intake and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status. Nutr Cancer, 64, 806-19.
  2. Brennan SF, Cantwell MM, Cardwell CR, et al (2010). Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr, 91, 1294-302.
  3. Brustad M, Sandanger TM, Andersen V, Lund E (2007). POP exposure from fish liver consumption and risk of cancer- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. J Environ Monit, 9, 682-6.
  4. Cheng Z, Chen KC, Li KB, et al (2013). Arsenic contamination in the freshwater fish ponds of Pearl River Delta: bioaccumulation and health risk assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 20, 4484-95.
  5. Dai Q, Shu XO, Jin F, et al (2002). Consumption of animal foods, cooking methods, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11, 801-8.
  6. Lambrechts S, Decloedt J, Neven P (2011). Breast cancer prevention: lifestyle changes and chemoprevention. Acta Clin Belg, 66, 283-92.
  7. Engeset D, Alsaker E, Lund E, et al (2006). Fish consumption and breast cancer risk. the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer, 119, 175-82.
  8. Eqani SA, Malik RN, Cincinelli A, et al (2013). Uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by river water fish: the case of River Chenab. Sci Total Environ, 450-451, 83-91.
  9. Gao CM, Ding JH, Li SP, et al (2013). Active and passive smoking, and alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk in Chinese women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 993-6.
  10. Lee SH, Ra JS, Choi JW, et al (2014). Human health risks associated with dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in river water in Korea. Sci Total Environ, 470-471, 1362-9.
  11. Kim J, Lim SY, Shin A, et al (2009). Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case control study. BMJ Cancer, 9, 216.
  12. Hirose K, Takezaki T, Hamajima N, et al (2003). Dietary factors protective against breast cancer in Japanese premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer, 107, 276-282.
  13. Hirunwatthanakul P, Sriplung H, Geater A (2006). Radiumcontaminated water: a risk factor for cancer of the upper digestive tract. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 295-8.
  14. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, et al (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108.
  15. Sala-Vila A, Calder PC (2011). Update on the relationship of fish intake with prostate, breast, and colorectal cancers. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 51, 855-71.
  16. Watanabe KH, Desimone FW, Thiyagarajah A, et al (2003). Fish tissue quality in the lower mississippi river and health risks from fish consumption. Sci Total Environ, 302, 109-26.
  17. Terry PD, Rohan TE, Wolk A (2003). Intakes of fish and marine fatty acids and the risks of cancers of the breast and prostate and of other hormone-related cancers: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr, 77, 532-43.
  18. Wang D, Yu Y, Zhang X, et al (2013). Organochlorine pesticides in fish from Taihu Lake, China, and associated human health risk assessment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 98, 383-9.
  19. Wang YM, Mo BQ, Takezaki T, et al (2003). Geographical variation in nutrient intake between urban and rural areas of Jiangsu province, China and development of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for middle-aged inhabitants. J Epidemiol, 13, 80-9.
  20. Wirfalt E, Mattisson I, Gullberg B, et al (2002). Postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with high intakes of omega6 fatty acids (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control, 13, 883-93.
  21. Yang L, Parkin DM, Ferlay J, et al (2005). Estimates of Cancer Incidence in China for 2000 and Projections for 2005. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, 243-50.
  22. Yang YX, Wang GY, X.C P (2002) China Food Composition 2002. Pag.311-313. Beijing university medical press, Beijing.
  23. Zheng JS, Hu XJ, Zhao YM, et al (2013). Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies. BMJ, 346, 3706.
  24. Zhuang P, Li ZA, McBride MB, et al (2013). Health risk assessment for consumption of fish originating from ponds near Dabaoshan mine, South China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 20, 5844-54.

피인용 문헌

  1. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study vol.12, pp.2, 2017,