Predictors of Violent Behavior by Patient or Caregiver of Patient in the Emergency Department

응급실 환자 및 보호자의 폭력행위 예측요인

  • Received : 2014.02.13
  • Accepted : 2014.10.01
  • Published : 2014.10.31


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of violent behavior by patient or caregiver of patient in the emergency department. Methods: Subjects of the study were 447 residents who have visited the emergency department in community P Metropolitan City during the past year. The data collecting period was from June 1, 2012 to August 31, 2012. Data was collected using self-reported questionnaires. Results: Predictors of violent behavior in the emergency department were divided into personal and institutional factors. Personal factors included relationship with patients, presence of alcohol, reports of discontent during and past treatment and responses to deterioration in patient's conditions, institution factors included perceived attitudes toward medical workers' explanations and proficiency of medical workers, and delay in medical treatment hours. Conclusion: Knowledge of personal and institutional factors may permit emergency staff to minimize or prevent potential violence in the emergency department.


  1. Catlette, M. A. (2005). Descriptive study of the perceptions of workplace violence and safety strategies of nurses working in level I trauma centers. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 31 (6), 519-525.
  2. Choi, W. J., Cho, S. H., Cho, N. S., & Kim, K. S. (2005). Effect of an education program on violence in the emergency department. Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine, 16 (2), 221-228.
  3. Crilly, J., Chaboyer, W., & Creedy, D. (2004). Violence towards emergency department nurses by patients, Accident and Emergency Nursing, 12, 67-73.
  4. Gates, D. M., Ross, C. S., & McQueen, L. (2006). Violence against emergency department workers. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 31, 331-337.
  5. Hesketh, K. L., Duncan, S. M., Estabrooks, C. A., Reimer, M. A., Giovannetti, P., Hyndman, K., et al. (2003). Workplace violence in Alberta and British Columbia hospitals. Health Policy, 63, 311-321.
  6. Hong, M. J. (2009). A study on nurses' experiences of violence. Unpublished master's thesis, Eulji University, Daejeon.
  7. Jessica, G. S., Altair, J., Lara, B., Cathy, H., Linda, R., & Susan, M. (2009). Violence against nurses working in US emergency departments. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39 , 340-349.
  8. Jung, E. H. (2011). Psychosocial stress and burnout related to violence in emergency room nurses. Unpublished master's thesis, Chonnam National University, Gwangju.
  9. Jung, H. S. (1998). Patient's satisfaction with nursing care services in a hospital emergency department. Unpublished master's thesis, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju.
  10. Kim, G. H., Lee, S. D., & Choi, Y. S. (1999). Violence predictors in psychiatric inpatients. Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 38 (6), 1305-1314.
  11. Kim, J. C., Seol, Y. M., & Song, H. S. (2003). Survey of emergency department violence. Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine, 14 (3), 309-313.
  12. Kim, M. Y., Kim, S. H., & Lim, S. H. (2005). A study of workplace violence by nurses. Nursing Science, 17 (2), 33-44.
  13. Kim, S. J., Jang, S. J., & Lee, H. S. (1992). Emergency department violence. Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine, 3 (2), 67-74.
  14. Kim, S. Y., Eom, M. R., Oh, H. Y., & Ahn, H. Y. (2007). Violence episodes and responses of emergency room nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, 14 (4), 446-456.
  15. Kim, T. S., & Kim, J. I. (2004). Violence episodes and turnover among clinical nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 10 (4), 427-436.
  16. Kwon, H. J., Kim, H. S., Choi, K. S., Lee, K. S., & Sung, Y. H. (2007). A study on verbal abuse experienced at medical centers. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research, 13 (2), 113-124.
  17. Lau, J. B. C., & Magarey, J. (2006). Review of research methods used to investigate violence in the emergency department. Accident and Emergency Nursing, 14 , 111-116.
  18. May, D. D., & Grubbs, L. M. (2002). The extent, nature, and precipitating factors of nurse assault among three groups of registered nurses in a regional medical center. The Journal of Emergency Nursing, 28, 11-17.
  19. Moser, C., & Shrader, E. (1999). A conceptual framework for violence reduction. Latin America and Caribbean region sustainable development working paper (No.2). Washington: The World Bank.
  20. Normandale, S., & Davies, J. (2002). Bullying at work. Community Practitioner, 75 (12), 474-477.
  21. Park, E. O., Kang, S. J., Lee, E. K., Ji, E. J., Kang, L. H., & Baek, C. H. (2001). Violence experience of clinical nurse in the hospital. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research, 7 (2), 187-201.
  22. Park, E. Y., Seo, J. M., Ju, H. O., & Lee, E. N. (2007). The reactions of emergency department nurses to violence: Q-Methodological approach. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 37 (5), 762-771.
  23. Park, J. K., You, Y. H., Park, J. S., Park, S. S., Chung, S. P., Kim, S. W., et al. (2004). Current status of violence in the emergency centers: Frequency and management. Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine, 15 (6), 575-579.
  24. Sung, M. H. (2008). Relationship of the experience of violence to burnout and job satisfaction in emergency department nurses. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research, 14 (2), 83-92.
  25. Unal, A. (2005). Violence toward health care workers in emergency departments in west Turkey. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 28, 361-365.
  26. Winstanley, S., & Whittington, R. (2004). Aggression towards health care staff in a UK general hospital: Variation among professions and departments. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 3-10.
  27. Yeon, S. J., Kim, W. B., Won, Y. S., Lee, K. Y., & Hong, Y. O. (2008). The structure and culture of violence in school sports, hospitals and workplaces of foreign employees. Series of Research of Korean Institute of Criminology, 21, 1-405.

Cited by

  1. Usefulness of Korean Version of Behavioral Cue Checklist for Predicting of Patient Violence in Emergency Departments vol.48, pp.3, 2018,
  2. The relationship between intention to leave the hospital and coping methods of emergency nurses after workplace violence vol.27, pp.7-8, 2018,
  3. Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Association between Violence Experience and Violence Response among Nurses vol.30, pp.1, 2018,