Overview of the Applications of Hydroacoustic Methods in South Korea and Fish Abundance Estimation Methods

  • Kang, Myounghee
  • Received : 2013.10.04
  • Accepted : 2014.06.12
  • Published : 2014.09.30


I provide an overview of the application of hydroacoustic methods in South Korea to understand the current research status in relation to fisheries acoustics and to determine which areas require further study. One main purpose for using a scientific echosounder, a representative tool using the hydroacoustic method, is to evaluate the abundance of fisheries resources. Thus, two representative methods for abundance estimation are described. The history of fisheries acoustics worldwide is also summarized.


Hydroacoustics;Echosounder;Fish abundance;Korea


  1. Yang YS, Bae JH, Lee KH, Park JS and Sohn BK. 2010. Fish monitoring through a fish run on the Nakdong River using an acoustic camera system. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 43, 735-739.
  2. Yoon EA, Hwang DJ, Hirose M, Kim EH, Mukal T and Park BS. 2010. Characteristics of acoustic scattering according to pulsation of the large jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Kor J Fish Aquat Sci 43, 551-556.
  3. Yoon GD and Ha KL. 1998. Acoustic target strength of pelagic fish species to echo integration in Korea Waters. II. Measurement of target strength of squid (Todarodes pacificus). J Kor Soc Fish Technol 34, 372-377.
  4. Yoon GD, Kim ZG and Choi YM. 1996. Acoustic target strength of the pelagic fish in the southern waters of Korea: In situ measurement of target strength of anchovy (Engraulis japonica). J Kor Fish Soc 29, 107-114.
  5. Zwolinski JP, Demer DA, Byers KA, Cutter GR, Renfree JS, Sessions TS and Macewicz BJ. 2012. Distributions and abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and other pelagic fishes in the California Current Ecosystem during spring 2006, 2008, and 2010 estimated from acoustic-trawl surveys. Fish Bull 110, 110-122.
  6. MOMAF. 2004. Feasibility studies on the marine ranching program of East, West and Jeju coastal areas in Korea. Report to the Ministry of Maritime Affairs & Fisheries.
  7. Mun JH, Lee DJ, Shin HI and Lee YW. 2006. Fish length dependence of target strength for black rockfish, goldeye rockfish at 70 kHz and 120 kHz. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 42, 30-37.
  8. Nakken O and Olsen K. 1977. Target strength measurements of fish. Rapp p-v Reun Cons Int Explor Mer 170, 52-69.
  9. O'Driscoll RL and Rose GA. 2001. In situ acoustic target strength of juvenile capelin. ICES J Mar Sci 58, 342-345.
  10. Oh TY, Kim JI, Seo YI, Lee SK, Hwang DJ, Kim EH, Yoon EA and Jeong SB. 2009. Comparison of geostatistic and acoustic estimates of anchovy abundance around the Tongyeong inshore area. J Kor Fish Soc 42, 290-296.
  11. Ona E and Barange M. 1999. Single target recognition. ICES Coop Res Rep 235, 28-43.
  12. Ona E. 1990. Physiological factors causing natural variations in acoustic target strength of fish. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 70, 107-127.
  13. Ostvedt OJ. 1965. The migration of Norwegian herring to Icelandic waters and the environmental conditions in May-June, 1961-1964. Fisken Havet 13, 30-47.
  14. Paramo J, Bertrand S, Villalobos H and Gerlotto F. 2007. A threedimensional approach to school typology using vertical scanning multibeam sonar. Fish Res 84, 171-179.
  15. Pitcher TJ, Misund OA, Ferno A, Totland B and Melle V. 1996. Adaptive behaviour of herring schools in the Norwegian Sea as revealed by high resolution sonar. ICES J Mar Sci 53, 449-452.
  16. Richardson ID. 1950. The use of an echo sounder to chart sprat concentrations. Ann Biolog Cons Internatio pour l'Explorat Mer 6, 136-139.
  17. Runnstrom S. 1937. A review of the Norwegian herring investigations in recent years. J Cons Int Explor Mer 12, 123-143.
  18. Ryan TE, Kloser RJ and Macaulay GJ. 2009. Measurement and visual verification of fish target strength using an acoustic-optical system attached to a trawl net. ICES J Mar Sci 66, 1238-1244.
  19. Sawada K, Takahashi H, Abe K, Ichii T, Watanabe K and Takao Y. 2009. Target-strength, length, and tilt-angle measurements of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) using an acoustic-optical system. ICES J Mar Sci 66, 1212-1218.
  20. Simmonds EJ and MacLennan DN. 2005. Fisheries Acoustics, Theory and Practice, 2nd edn. Fish and Fisheries Series, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. 437 PP.
  21. Simmonds EJ, Armstrong F and Copland PJ. 1996. Species identification using wideband backscatter with neural network and discriminant analysis. ICES J Mar Sci 53, 189-195.
  22. Sund O. 1935. Echo sounding in fishery research. Nature 135, 953.
  23. Sund O. 1943. The fat and small herring on the coast of Norway in 1940. Ann Biol Cons Int Explor Mer 1, 58-79.
  24. Korneliussen RJ, Heggelund Y, Eliassen IK and Johansen GO. 2009. Acoustic species identification of schooling fish. ICES J Mar Sci 66, 1111-1118.
  25. Lee DJ and Shin HI. 2005. Construction of a data bank for acoustic target strength with fish species, length and acoustic frequency for measuring fish size distribution. J Kor Fish Soc 38, 265-275.
  26. Lee DJ and Lee WW. 1996. Hydroacoustic investigations of demersal fisheries resources in the southeastern area of the Cheju Island, Korea-acoustical estimation of fish density and distribution. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 32, 266-272.
  27. Lee DJ, Shin HI and Shin HH. 1995. Fish stock assessment by hydroacoustic methods and its applications - I - Estimation of fish school target strength. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 31, 142-152.
  28. Lee DJ. 1994a. Hydroacoustic observations on the diel distribution and activity patterns of fishes in the East China Sea - I - Activity patterns during the evening and morning transition periods. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 30, 239-250.
  29. Lee DJ. 1994b. Hydroacoustic observations on the diel distribution and activity patterns of fishes in the East China Sea - II - Vertical speed of migration and variation in scattering strength. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 30, 251-262.
  30. Lee DJ. 2010. Fish length dependence of target strength for striped beakperch, bluefin searobin and konoshiro gizzard shad caught in the artificial reef ground of Yongho Man, Busan. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 46, 239-247.
  31. Lee DJ. 2012. Fish length dependence of target strength for black porgy and fat greenling at two frequencies of 70 and 120 kHz. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 48, 137-146.
  32. Lee HB and Kang DH. 2010. In situ side-aspect target strength of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in northwestern Pacific Ocean. J Kor Fish Soc 46, 248-256.
  33. Lee JB, Oh TY, Yeon IJ, Kim BY, Shin HO, Hwang BK, Lee KH and Lee YW. 2012. Estimation of demersal fish abundance using hydroacoustic and catch data in the marine ranching area (MRA) of Jeju. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 48, 128-136.
  34. Lee KH, Kim IO, Yoon WD, Shin JK, and An HC. 2007. A study on vertical distribution observation of giant jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) using acoustical and optical methods. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 43, 355-361.
  35. Lee KH, Lee, DJ, Kim HS and Park SW. 2010. Swimming speed measurement of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) using acoustic doppler current profiler. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 46, 165-172.
  36. Love RH. 1971. Dorsal-aspect target strength of an individual fish. J Acoust Soc Am 49, 816-823.
  37. Midttun L and Saetersdal G. 1957. On the use of echosounder observations for estimating fish abundance. Special Publication, International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 11, 260-266.
  38. Mitson RB. 1995. Underwater noise of research vessels. Review and recommendations. ICES Coop Res Rep 209, 61.
  39. Choi SK, Kim JY, Kim SS, Choi YM and Choi KH. 2001. Abundance estimation of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) by acoustic and trawl surveys during spring season in the southern Korean waters. J Kor Soc Fish Res 4, 20-29.
  40. Choo HS and Kim DS. 1998. The effect of variations in the Tsushima warm currents on the egg and larval transport of anchovy in the southern sea of Korea. J Kor Fish Soc 31, 226-244.
  41. Cushing DH. 1952. Echo-surveys of fish. J Cons Int Explor Mer 18, 45-60.
  42. Cutter GR Jr, Berger L and Demer DA. 2010. A comparison of bathymetry mapped with the Simrad ME70 multibeam echosounder operated in bathymetric and fisheries modes. ICES J Mar Sci 67, 1301-1309.
  43. Dragesund O and Olsen S. 1965. On the possibility of estimating year-class strength by measuring echo-abundance of 0-group fish. Rep Nor Fish Mar Invest 13, 47-75.
  44. Edwards JI and Armstrong F. 1983. Measurement of the target strength of live herring and mackerel. FAO Fish Rep 300, 69-77.
  45. Fassler SMM, Santos R, Garcia-Nunez N and Fernandes PG. 2007. Multi frequency backscattering properties of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 64, 362-374.
  46. Foote KG. 1980. Effect of fish behaviour on echo energy: the need for measurements of orientation distributions. J Cons Int Explor Mer 39, 193-201.
  47. Foote KG. 1983. Linearity of fisheries acoustics, with additional theorems. J Acoust Soc Am 73, 1932-1940.
  48. Foote KG. 1987. Fish target strengths for use in echo integrator surveys. J Acoust Soc Am 82, 981-987.
  49. Gauthier S and Rose GA. 2001. Target strength of encaged Atlantic red fish (Sebastes spp). ICES J Mar Sci 58, 562-568.
  50. Blackman SS. 1986. Multiple-Target Tracking with Radar Application. Artech House, Dedham 464 pp.
  51. Brierley AS, Ward P, Watkins JL and Goss C. 1998. Acoustic discrimination of Southern Ocean zooplankton. Deep-Sea Res II 45, 1155-1173.
  52. Gerlotto F, Bertrand S, Bez N and Gutierrez M. 2006. Waves of agitation inside anchovy schools observed with multibeam sonar, a way to transmit information in response to predation. ICES J Mar Sci 63, 1405-1417.
  53. Graham N, Jones EG and Reid DG. 2004. Review of technological advances for the study of fi sh behaviour in relation to demersal fishing trawls. ICES J Mar Sci 61, 1036-1043.
  54. Gutierrez M, Swartzman G, Bertrand A and Bertrand S. 2007. Anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) spatial dynamics and aggregation patterns in the Humboldt Current ecosystem, Peru, from 1983-2003. Fish Oceanogr 16, 155-168.
  55. Hazen EL and Horne JK. 2004. Comparing the modeled and measured target-strength variability of walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma. ICES J Mar Sci 61, 363-377.
  56. Hwang BK. 2008. Zooplankton abundance and size estimation using a multi-frequency acoustic system. J Kor Fish Soc 41, 54-60.
  57. Hwang DJ, Kim DE, Jeong SB, Son YU, Chae JH and Cho KR. 2005. Distribution of the deep scattering layer around Uljin coastal area. J Kor Fish Soc 38, 205-213.
  58. Hwang DJ, Park JS and Lee YW. 2004. Estimation of fish school abundance by using an echo sounder in an artificial reef area. J Kor Fish Soc 37, 249-254.
  59. Hwang DJ, Shin HH and Kang DH. 2002. Studies on fish distribution characteristics using a scientific echo sounder in the Yellow Sea. J Kor Soc Fish Tech 38, 140-148.
  60. Jech JM and Horne JK. 2002. Three-dimensional visualization of fish morphometry and acoustic backscatter. J Acoust Soc Am 3, 35-40.
  61. Johannesson KA and Mitson RB. 1983. Fisheries acoustics - A practical manual for aquatic abundance estimation. FAO Fish Tech Paper, No. 240.
  62. Kang DH, Hwang DJ, Mukai M, Iida K and Lee KH. 2004. Acoustic target strength of live Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacifica) from applying abundance estimation. J Kor Fish Soc 37, 345-353.
  63. Kang DH, Hwang DJ, Soh HY, Yoon YH, Suh HL, Kim YJ, Shin HC and Iida K. 2003. Density estimation of an euphausiid (Euphausia pacifica) in the sound scattering layer of the East China Sea. J Kor Fish Soc 36, 749-756.
  64. Kang DH, Lim YJ, Lee CW, Yoo JT and Myung JG. 2008. Hydroacoustic survey of spatio-temporal distribution of demersal fish aggregations near the west coast of Jeju island, Korea. Ocean Polar Res 30, 181-191.
  65. Kang DH, Sin HC, Kim SA, Lee YH and Hwang DJ. 2003. Species identification and noise cancellation using volume backscattering strength difference of multi-frequency. J Kor Fish Soc 36, 541-548.
  66. Kang HY and Lee DJ. 2003. Fish length dependence of acoustic target strength for large yellow croaker. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 39, 239-248.
  67. Kang M, Furusawa M and Miyashita K. 2002. Effective and accurate use of difference in mean volume backscattering strength to identify fish and plankton. ICES J Mar Sci 59, 794-804.
  68. Kang M, Yoon GD, Choi YM and Kim ZG. 1996. Hydroacoustic investigations on the distribution characteristics of the anchovy at the south region of East Sea. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 32, 16-23.
  69. Kim HY, Hwang BK, Lee YW, Shin HO, Kwon JN and Lee KH. 2011. Hydro-acoustic survey on fish distribution and aggregated fish at artificial reefs in marine ranching area. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 47, 139-145.
  70. Kim JI, Yang WS, Oh TY, Seo YI, Kim ST, Hwang DJ, Kim EH and Jeong SB. 2008. Acoustic estimates of anchovy abundance along the Tongyoung-Namhae coast. J Kor Fish Soc 41, 61-67.
  71. Kim ZG, Choi YM, Hwang KS and Yoon GD. 1998. Study on the acoustic behavior pattern of fish school and species identification. 1. Shoal behavior pattern of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in Korean waters and species identification test. J Kor Soc Fish Technol 34, 52-61.
  72. Kimura K. 1929. On the detection of fish-groups by an acoustic method. J Imp Fish Ins, Tokyo.