Anti-inflammatory Effects of Korean red ginseng Extract in formalin-induced Orofacial Pain in Rats

포르말린으로 유도된 안면통증에 대한 홍삼추출물의 항염증 효과

  • Received : 2014.07.23
  • Accepted : 2014.09.11
  • Published : 2014.09.30


The effects of korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts on orifacial pain control in terms of the systemic inflammatory response and pharmacological effects as health supplements were investigated. The experimental group were divided into three groups, the control group (n=6), formalin (5%, $50{\mu}{\ell}$) injection group (n=6), and formalin (5%, $50{\mu}{\ell}$) injection added KRG administrated group (4.5 ml/kg, n=6). The KRG administrated group prior to the formalin injection significantly attenuated the behavioral response compared to that of the control group. Pain reduction was suppressed mainly from 15 min to 30 min. The KRG administrated rats showed significantly reduced p38 MAPK, iNOS and Nrf2 expression in the brain and medulla oblongata according to Western blot analysis. These findings suggest that KRE may have a useful effect on orificial pain control functions by preventing the p38 MAPK pathway.


Korean red ginseng extract;iNOS;Nrf2;Orofacial pain;p38 MAPK


  1. S. Y. Yu, B . R. Yoon, Y. J. LEE, J. S. lee, H. D. Hong, Y. C. Lee, Y. C. Kim, C. W. Cho, K. T. Kim, O. H. Lee, "Inhibitory Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mouse", Nutrients, 6(3), 1003-1015, 2014 DOI:
  2. J. Y. Kim, J. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, "Effect of Oral Administration of Korean Red Ginseng on Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection",J. GinsengRes, 35, 104-11, 2011 DOI:
  3. V. K. Wong, S. S. Cheung, T. Li, Z.H. Jiang, J. R. Wang, H. Dong, X. Q. Yi, H. Zhou, L. Liu, "Asian ginseng extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma via modulation of ERK-p53 and NF-kappaB", signaling J Cell Biochem, 111, 899-910, 2010 DOI:
  4. B. J. Park, Y. S. Lim, H. J. Lee, W. S. Eum, J. Park, K. H. Han, S. Y. Choi, K .S. Lee, " Anti-oxidative effects of Phellinuslinteus and red ginseng extracts on oxidative stress-induced DNA damage", BMB Rep, 42, 500-505, 2009 DOI:
  5. J. Sung, K. H. Han, J. H. Zo, H. J. Park, C. H. Kim, B. H. Oh, "Effects of red ginseng upon vascular endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension", Am J Chin Med, 8, 205-216, 2000 DOI:
  6. Y. S. Kwak, J. S. Kyung, J. S. Kim, J. Y. Cho, M. H. Rhee, "Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of red ginseng acidicpolysaccharide from Korean red ginseng", Biol Pharm Bull, 33, 468-472, 2010 DOI:
  7. Y. R. Jin, J. Y. Yu, J. J. Lee, S. H. You, J. H. Chung, J. Y. Noh, J. H. Im, X. H. Han, T. J. Kim, K. S. Shin, "Antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of Korean red ginseng extract", Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 100, 170-175, 2007 DOI:
  8. S. H. Abdel-Aziem, A. Mosaad, K. Gamil, A. A. El-Kady, A. A. El-Nekeety, K. W. Nam, "Therapeutic Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases", J. Ginseng Res, 35, 69-79, 2011 DOI:
  9. J. R. Maxwell, W. A. Brown, C. L. Smith, F. R. Byrne, J. L. Viney, "Methods of inducing inflammatory bowel disease in mice", Curr Protoc Pharmacol, Chapter 5, Unit 5.58, 2009
  10. M. Naseri, F. Mojab, M. Khodadoost, M. Kamalinejad, A. Davati, R. Choopani, A. Hasheminejad, Z. Bararpoor, S. Shariatpanahi, M. Emtiazy, "The Study of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil-Based Dill (Anethumgraveolens L.) Extract Used Topically in Formalin-Induced Inflammation Male Rat Paw", Iran J Pharm Res, 11(4), 1169-1174, 2012
  11. M.J. Bak , S. G Hong , J. W. Lee, W. S. Jeong, "Red Ginseng Marc Oil Inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NF$\kappa$B and p38 Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages", Molecules, 17(12), 13769-13786, 2012 DOI:
  12. J. U. Yun, "A Study of Anti-inflammatory effects from Natural product", Department of Life ScienceThe Graduate School, Gachon University, 2013
  13. H. K. Cho, K. W. Kim, Y. M. Jeong, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, "Efficacy of Ketamine in Improving Pain after Tonsillectomy in Children: Meta-Analysis", PLoS One, 9(6), 101259, 2014, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101259 DOI:
  14. A. Krzyzanowska, C. Avendano, "Behavioral testing in rodent medels of orofacial neuropathic and inflammatory pain", Brain and Behavior, 2(5), 678-697, 2012 DOI:
  15. H. S. Choi, J. S. Ju, H. J. Lee, B. C. Kim, J. S. Park, D. K. Ahn, "effects of intracisternal infection of interleukin-6 on nociceptive jaw opening reflex and orofacial formalin test in freely moving rats", Brain research Bulletin, 59(5), 365-370, 2003 DOI:
  16. S. H Kim, Y. J. Chung, "Antidiabetic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng by Different Processing Method in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats", Department of Food and Nutrition Graduate School Chungnam National University, 2008
  17. S. J. Seo, J. Y. Cho, Y. H. Jeong, Y. S. Choi, "The anti-obesity effects of the dietary combination of fermented red ginseng with levan in high fat diet mouse model", Phytother Res, 28(4), 617-22, 2014 DOI:
  18. H. Nishijo, T. Uwano, Y. M. Zhong, T. Ono, "Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits in an animal model of amnesia", J Pharmacol Sci, 95(2), 145-52, 2004 DOI:
  19. Y. I. Kim, K. J. kim, "Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronically Constrictive Ligatures of the Sciatic Nerve in the Rat", chungnam medical journal, 22, No.2, 1995
  20. R. R. Ji, R. W. Gereau 4th, M. Malcangio, G. R. Strichartz, "MAP kinase and pain", Brain Res Rev, 60(1), 135-148, 2009 DOI:
  21. E. D. Crown, Y. S. Gwak, Z. Ye, K. M. Johnson, C. E. Hulsebosch, "Activation of p38 MAP kinase is involved in central neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury", Exp Neurol, 213(2), 257-67, 2008 DOI:
  22. Y. K. Kim, K. Y. Hyun, M. H. Joo, B. M. Jin, M. K. lee, "Effect of Samultang in Formalin-induced Orofacial Pain", Journal of Korean Society of Oral Health Science, 1, 117-125, 2013 DOI:
  23. C. J. Lowenstein, E. Padalko, "iNOS (NOS2) at a glance", Journal of Cell Science, 117, 2865-2867, 2004 DOI:
  24. T. Nguyen, P. Nioi, C. B. Pickett, "The Nrf2-Antioxidant ResponseElement Signaling Pathway andIts Activation by Oxidative Stress", J. Biol. Chem, 284, 13291-13295, 2009 DOI:


Supported by : 동의대학교