- Volume 15 Issue 9
As oral diseases are developed by mixed infections, not by any single element, an accurate analysis of the causative microorganisms related to dental caries and periodontal diseases is required. In this study, saliva was collected from selected adults to determine if the bacteria that are well known as the causative microorganisms of dental caries and periodontal diseases would be detected in their saliva. In addition, this study examined whether there would be any differences among adults according to age, smoking, drinking and presence or absence of diseases in the distribution of oral bacteria to determine the risk factors for oral bacteria. The study subjects were 120 adults ranging in age from 20 to 65 years. The experiment data was collected from March 15, to May 2014. The gDNA was collected from the saliva, and the distribution of bacteria for oral diseases was investigated by PCR. The findings of the study were as follows. S. mutans was detected from 72 adults, and P. intermedia was detected from 88 adults. Both bacteria were detected from 54 adults, and no oral bacteria was detected in 14 adults. An analysis of the risk factors of oral bacteria showed that smokers had a 2.8-fold higher risk of S. mutans than nonsmokers, and the former had a 3.5-fold higher risk of P. intermedia than the latter. Drinkers had a 3.3-fold higher risk of S. mutans than nondrinkers. Patients who suffered from systemic diseases had a 4.1-fold higher risk of P. intermedia than those with no diseases. Therefore, smoking, drinking and systemic diseases are factors that increase the likelihood of oral bacteria detection. More periodontal disease bacteria were detected from older adults, and more oral bacteria were found in adults who were in their 20s, as dental caries and periodontal diseases were more common in this age group. The adults in which oral bacteria were detected are more likely to have dental caries or periodontal diseases, and they should try to keep their mouth cavity clean and make regular visits to a dental clinic to prevent possible oral diseases.
Oral bacteria;Polymerase chain reaction;Risk factors;Saliva
- P. N. Papapanou. "Population studies of microbial ecology in periodontal health and disease". Ann Periodontol, 7(1), pp. 54-61, 2002. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/annals.2002.7.1.54 https://doi.org/10.1902/annals.2002.7.1.54
- S. H. Jung, Q. S. Auh, Y. H. Chun, J. P. Hong. "The Effect of S. thermophilus Isolated from Saliva Treated with Phytoncide on P. gingivalis". Korean Acad Orofacial Pain and Oral Med, 34(1), pp. 23-37, 2009.
- K. H. Kang, Y. K. Kim, H. S. Lee, "Ingnyol Jin. Analysis of Gene Expression in response to acid stress of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from a Korean Child". Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, 10(10), pp. 2990-6, 2009. https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2009.10.10.2990
- R. A. Whiley, D. Beighton. "Current classification of the oral streptococci". Oral Microbiol. Immunol, 13(4), pp. 195-216. 1998. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-302X.1998.tb00698.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-302X.1998.tb00698.x
- W. J. Loesche. "The identification of bacteria associated with periodontal disease and dental caries by enzymatic methods". Oral Microbiol immol, 1(1), pp. 65-72. 1986. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-302X.1986.tb00322.x
- C. S. Kim, J. G. Kim, Y. M. Yang et al. "Detection of salivary Streptococcus mutans levels using monoclonal antibiodies". J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent, 37(2), pp. 186-192, 2010.
- M. J. Lee. The comparison of the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans isolated from caries free and high caries children[Doctor's thesis] Chonju: Univ. of Chonbuk. 2014.
- P. M. Loomer. "Microbiological diagnostic testing in the treatment of periodontal diseases". J Periodontol, 34(1), pp. 49-56, 2004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0906-6713.2002.003424.x https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0906-6713.2002.003424.x
- M. D. Han, Y. K. Kim. Oral microbiology. Seoul. Komoonsa 4nd. pp. 300, 2010.
- S. S. Socransky, A. D. Haffajee, M. A. Cugini, C. Smith, R. L. Kent. "Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque". J Clin Periodontol, 25, pp. 134-144, 1998. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02419.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02419.x
- B. K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. J. Yoo ett al. "Detection of major putative periodontopathogens in Korean advanced adult periodontitispatients using a nucleic acid-based approach". J Periodontol, 71, pp. 1387-1394, 2000. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2000.71.9.1387 https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2000.71.9.1387
- M. D. Han, Y. K. Kim. Oral microbiology. Seoul. Komoonsa 4nd. pp. 17-29, 2005.
- M. Okada, F. Hayashi, N. Nagasaka. "PCR detection of 5 putative periodontal pathogens in dental plaque samples from children 2 to 12 years of age". J Clin Periodontol, 28(6), pp. 576-582, 2001. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028006576.x https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028006576.x
- S. M. Kim, K. H. Yang, N. K. Choi, M. S. Kang, J. S. Oh. "Quantitative Detection of periodontopathiic bacteria using real-time PCR". J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent, 35(3), pp. 494-503, 2008.
- M. H. Choi, S. Y. Yoo, D. W. Kang, C. K. Lim, J. K. Kook. "Nested PCR for the Detection of Streptococcus mutans". The Korean Journal of Microbiology, 42(1), pp. 19-25, 2006.
- S. Eick, W. Pfister. "Comparison of microbial cultivation and a commercial PCR based method for detection of periodontopathogenic species in subgingival plaque samples". J Clin Periodontol, 29(7), pp. 638-644. 2002. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051X.2002.290708.x https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051X.2002.290708.x
- J. H. Yun, J. E. Park, D. I. Kim, S. I. Lee, S. H. Choi, K.. S. Cho, D. S. Lee. "Identification of putative periodontal pathogens in Korean chronic periodontitis patients". J Periodontal Implant Sci, 38(2), pp. 143-152, 2008.
- J. I. Lee. Correlation co-efficiency between the caries incidence and the periodontal status in Korea[Master's thesis]. Chungnam: Univ. of Dankook. 2005.
- J. O. Jung, J. Y. Chun, K. H. Lee. "The relationship between smoking and periodontal diseases in korean adults:based on the data from the korea national health and nutrition examination survey 2010". J Korean Soc Dent Hyg, 13(3), pp. 483-9, 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13065/jksdh.2013.13.3.481 https://doi.org/10.13065/jksdh.2013.13.3.481
- I. S. Park, S. H. Lee, H. J. Youn. "A comparatives study on oral environment between smokers and non-smokers". J Dent Hyg Sci, 8(3), pp. 139-46, 2008.
- N. Suzuki, A. Yoshida, T. Saito, M. Kawada, Y. Nakano. "Quantitative microbiological study of subgingival plaque by realtime PCR shows correlation between levels of Tannerella forsythensis and Fusobacterium spp". J Clin Microbiol, 42(5), pp. 2255-2257, 2004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.42.5.2255-2257.2004. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.42.5.2255-2257.2004
- B. Klock, M. Svanberg, L. G. Petersson. "Dental caries, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and saliva secretion rate in adults". Community Dent Oral Epide, 18(5), pp. 249-252, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.1990.tb00069.x
- M. H. Yoo. The effects of smoking on oral mucosa. The Journal of Namseoul Univ, 10, pp. 229-468, 2004.
- R. C. Page, J. D. Beck. "Risk assessment for periodontal diseases". Int Dent J, 47(2), pp. 61-87, 1997. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1875-595X.1997.tb00680.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1875-595X.1997.tb00680.x
- A. D. Haffajee, S. S. Socransky. "Relationship of cigarette smoking to subgingival microbiota". J Clin Periodontol, 28(5), pp. 377-388, 2001. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028005377.x https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028005377.x
- D. H. Han, J. B. Kim. "The association between smoking and periodontitis: findings from the korean national oral health survey 2006". J Korean Acad Dent Health, 33(4), pp. 634-43, 2009.
- N. L. Thenisch, L. M. Bachmann, T. Imfeld, T. L. Minder, J. Steurer. "Are Mutans Streptococci Detected in Preschool Children a Reliable Predictive Factor for Dental Caries Risk? A Systematic Review", Caries Res, 40(5), pp. 366-374, 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000094280 https://doi.org/10.1159/000094280