Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010

  • Kim, Jihye (Department of Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Dongduk Women's University) ;
  • Yang, Yoon Jung (Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Dongduk Women's University)
  • Received : 2014.03.21
  • Accepted : 2014.06.30
  • Published : 2014.10.01


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS: The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water.


  1. The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society; 2010.
  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for water. EFSA J 2010;8:1459-506.
  3. Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water; Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes; Food and Nutrition Board (US). Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2005.
  4. Valtin H. "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 x 8"? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002;283:R993-1004.
  5. Ji K, Kim Y, Choi K. Water intake rate among the general Korean population. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:734-9.
  6. Kant AK, Graubard BI, Atchison EA. Intakes of plain water, moisture in foods and beverages, and total water in the adult US population-- nutritional, meal pattern, and body weight correlates: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2006. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:655-63.
  7. Popkin BM, Barclay DV, Nielsen SJ. Water and food consumption patterns of U.S. adults from 1999 to 2001. Obes Res 2005;13: 2146-52.
  8. Harnack L, Stang J, Story M. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:436-41.
  9. Storey ML, Forshee RA, Anderson PA. Beverage consumption in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:1992-2000.
  10. Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84: 274-88.
  11. Attila S, Cakir B. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors. Nutrition 2011;27:316-22.
  12. Bleich SN, Wang YC, Wang Y, Gortmaker SL. Increasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among US adults: 1988-1994 to 1999-2004. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:372-81.
  13. Park S, Onufrak S, Blanck HM, Sherry B. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. J Acad Nutr Diet 2013;113: 112-9.
  14. Yamada M, Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Okubo H. Soft drink intake is associated with diet quality even among young Japanese women with low soft drink intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108: 1997-2004.
  15. Lin BH, Huang CL, French SA. Factors associated with women's and children's body mass indices by income status. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:536-42.
  16. de Castro JM, Taylor T. Smoking status relationships with the food and fluid intakes of free-living humans. Nutrition 2008;24:109-19.
  17. World Health Organization; International Association for the Study of Obesity; International Obesity Taskforce. The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment [Internet]. Manila: World Health Organization; 2000 [cited 2013 March 15]. Available from: http://
  18. Bray GA. Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Obesity. Newtown (PA): Handbooks in Health Care; 1998.
  19. Brown JE. Nutrition Now. Belmont (CA): Wadsworth Publishing Company; 1999.
  20. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III), 2005. Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2006.
  21. Paek KW, Chun KH. Moderating effects of interactions between dietary intake and socioeconomic status on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Ann Epidemiol 2011;21:877-83.
  22. Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York (NY): Oxford University Press; 1998.
  23. Sebastian RS, Enns CW, Goldman JD. Drinking water intake in the U.S.: what we eat in america, NHANES 2005-2008 [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: Food Surveys Research Group; 2011 [cited 2013 March 21]. Available from: docid=19476.
  24. Miller PD, Krebs RA, Neal BJ, McIntyre DO. Hypodipsia in geriatric patients. Am J Med 1982;73:354-6.
  25. Phillips PA, Rolls BJ, Ledingham JG, Forsling ML, Morton JJ, Crowe MJ, Wollner L. Reduced thirst after water deprivation in healthy elderly men. N Engl J Med 1984;311:753-9.
  26. Kenney WL, Chiu P. Influence of age on thirst and fluid intake. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:1524-32.
  27. Leaf A. Dehydration in elderly. N Engl J Med 1984;311:791-2.
  28. Rolls BJ, Phillips PA. Aging and disturbances of thirst and fluid balance. Nutr Rev 1990;48:137-44.
  29. Dallongeville J, Marecaux N, Fruchart JC, Amouyel P. Cigarette smoking is associated with unhealthy patterns of nutrient intake: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 1998;128:1450-7.
  30. McPhillips JB, Eaton CB, Gans KM, Derby CA, Lasater TM, McKenney JL, Carleton RA. Dietary differences in smokers and nonsmokers from two southeastern New England communities. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:287-92.
  31. Bottoni A, Cannella C, Del Balzo V. Lifestyle and dietary differences in smokers and non-smokers from an Italian employee population. Public Health 1997;111:161-4.
  32. French SA, Hennrikus DJ, Jeffery RW. Smoking status, dietary intake, and physical activity in a sample of working adults. Health Psychol 1996;15:448-54.
  33. La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Parazzini F, Decarli A. Differences in dietary intake with smoking, alcohol, and education. Nutr Cancer 1992;17:297-304.
  34. Dyer AR, Elliott P, Stamler J, Chan Q, Ueshima H, Zhou BF; INTERMAP Research Group. Dietary intake in male and female smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers: the INTERMAP study. J Hum Hypertens 2003;17:641-54.
  35. Klesges RC, Ray JW, Klesges LM. Caffeinated coffee and tea intake and its relationship to cigarette smoking: an analysis of the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). J Subst Abuse 1994;6:407-18.
  36. Whichelow MJ, Erzinclioglu SW, Cox BD. A comparison of the diets of non-smokers and smokers. Br J Addict 1991;86:71-81.
  37. He FJ, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, MacGregor GA. Effect of salt intake on renal excretion of water in humans. Hypertension 2001;38:317-20.
  38. Luft FC, Fineberg NS, Sloan RS, Hunt JN. The effect of dietary sodium and protein on urine volume and water intake. J Lab Clin Med 1983;101:605-10.
  39. Heller KE, Sohn W, Burt BA, Eklund SA. Water consumption in the United States in 1994-96 and implications for water fluoridation policy. J Public Health Dent 1999;59:3-11.

Cited by

  1. The Correlation Analysis of Fluid Intake, Skin Hydration and Skin pH of College Students vol.17, pp.2, 2015,
  2. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults vol.8, pp.10, 2016,
  3. Drinking Water Intake Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality among French Adults vol.8, pp.12, 2016,
  4. Establishment of reference intake of water for Korean adults in 2015 vol.50, pp.2, 2017,