Prediction of the Chemical Composition and Fermentation Parameters of Winter Rye Silages by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Park, Hyung Soo ;
  • Lee, Sang Hoon ;
  • Choi, Ki Choon ;
  • Lim, Young Cheol ;
  • Kim, Ji Hea ;
  • Lee, Ki Won ;
  • Choi, Gi Jun
  • Received : 2014.08.18
  • Accepted : 2014.09.18
  • Published : 2014.09.30


This study was carried out to explore the accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of chemical and fermentation parameters of whole crop winter rye silages. A representative population of 216 fresh winter rye silages was used as database for studying the possibilities of NIRS to predict chemical composition and fermentation parameters. Samples of silage were scanned at 1 nm intervals over the wavelength range 680~2,500 nm and the optical data recorded as log 1/Reflectance (log 1/R) and scanned in fresh condition. NIRS calibrations were developed by means of partial least-squares (PLS) regression. NIRS analysis of fresh winter rye silages provided accurate predictions of moisture, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein (CP) and pH as well as lactic acid content with correlation coefficients of cross-validation ($R^2cv$) of 0.96, 0.86, 0.79, 0.85, 0.82 and 0.78 respectively and standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 1.89, 2.02, 2.79, 1.14, 1.47 and 0.46 % DM respectively. Results of this experiment showed the possibility of NIRS method to predict the chemical parameters of winter rye silages as routine analysis method in feeding value evaluation and for farmer advice.


Silage;Winter rye;Near infrared spectroscopy;Feed value;Fermentation


  1. AOAC, 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Washington, DC.
  2. Arminda M. Bruno-Soaresa, Ian Murrayb, Rhona M. Patersonb, and Jose M.F. Abreua. 1998. Use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of the chemical composition and nutritional attributes of green crop cereals. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 75:15-25.
  3. Barber, G.D., Givens, D.I., Kridis, M.S., Offer, N.W. and Murray, I. 1990. Prediction of the organic matter digestibility of grass silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 28:115-128.
  4. Canale, A., Valenti, M.E. and Ciotti, A. 1984. Determination of volatile carboxilic acids (C1-C5i) and lactic acid in aqueous acid extracts of silage by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Science Food Agricultural. 35:1178-1182.
  5. Cheli, F., Battaglia, D., Pinotti, L. and Baldi, A. 2012. State of the art in feedstuff analysis: a technique-oriented perspective. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 60:9529-9542.
  6. Gordon, F.J., Cooper, K.M., Park, R.S. and Steen, R.W.J. 1998. The prediction of intake potential and organic matter digestibility of grass silages by near infrared spectroscopy analysis of undried samples. Animal. Feed Science Technology. 70:339-351.
  7. Liu. X. and Han, L. 2006. Evaluation of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for prdicting chemical composition of straw silage. Journal of Animal and Feed Science. 15:329-336.
  8. Lovett, D.K., Deaville, E.R., Mould, F., Givens, D.I. and Owen, E. 2004. Using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the biological parameters of maize silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 115:179-187.
  9. Marum, A.H. and Aastveit, P. 1990. The precision of the Tilley and Terry method compared to the NIRS method in estimating digestibility in breeding programs. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, pp. 566-569. 
  10. Park, H.S., Lee, S.H., Choi, K.C., Lim, Y.C., Kim, J.G., Jo, K.Y. and Choi, G.J. 2012. Evaluation of the quality of Italian ryegrass silages by near infrared spectroscopy. Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 32(3):30-308.
  11. Park, H.S., Lee, S.H., Lim, Y.C., Seo, S., Choi, K.C., Kim, J.G., Kim, J.G. and Choi, G.J. 2013. Prediction of the Chemical Composition of Fresh Whole Crop Barley Silages by Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 33(3):171-176.
  12. Park, R.S., Gordon, F.J., Agnew, R.E. and Steen, R.W.J. 1998. The use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) on undried samples of grass silage to predict chemical composition and digestibility parameters. Animal. Feed Science Technology. 72: 155-167.
  13. Reeves J.B.III. and Blosser, T.H. 1991. Near infrared spectroscopic analysis of undried silages as influenced by sample grind, presentation method, and spectral region. Journal of Dairy Science. 742:882-895.
  14. Roberts, C.A., Workman, J. and Reeves, J.B. (Eds.). 2004. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Agriculture. American Society of Agronomy; Crop Science Society of America; Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis.
  15. Shenk J.S. and Westerhaus, M.O. 1993. Monograph: Analysis of Agriculture and Food Products by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. Infrasoft International, Port Matilda, PA (USA), pp. 103.
  16. Sinnaeve, G., Dardenne, P., Agneessens, R. and Biston, R. 1994. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of fresh grass silage. Journal of Near infrared Spectroscopy. 2:79-84.
  17. Sørensen, L.K. 2004. Prediction of Fermentation Parameters in Grass and Corn Silage by Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Dairy Science. 87:3826-3835.
  18. Stuth, J, Jama, A. and Tolleson, D. 2003. Direct and indirect means of predicting forage quality through near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Field Crops Research. 84:45-56.
  19. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Method for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 74:3583-3597.
  20. Vazquez de Aldana, B.R., 1996. Non-destructive method for determining ash content in pasture samples: application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 27(3):795-802.
  21. Windham, W.R., Hill, N.S. and Stuedemann, J.A. 1991. Ash in forage esophageal and fecal samples analyzed using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Crop Science. 31:1345-1349.

Cited by

  1. Mathematical Transformation Influencing Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Calibrations for the Prediction of Chemical Composition and Fermentation Parameters in Corn Silage vol.36, pp.1, 2016,


Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration