Demographic Risk Factors, Affected Anatomical Sites and Clinicopathological Profile for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a North Indian Population

  • Krishna, Akhilesh (Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University) ;
  • Singh, R.K. (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King George's Medical University) ;
  • Singh, Shraddha (Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University) ;
  • Verma, Pratima (Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University) ;
  • Pal, U.S. (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King George's Medical University) ;
  • Tiwari, Sunita (Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University)
  • Published : 2014.08.30


Background: Oral cancer is a common form of cancer in India, particularly among men. About 95% are squamous cell carcinomas. Tobacco along with alcohol are regarded as the major risk factors. Objectives: (i) To determine associations of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with respect to gender, age group, socioeconomic status and risk habits; (ii) To observe the distribution of affected oral anatomical sites and clinico-pathological profile in OSCC patients. Materials and Methods: This is an unmatched case-control study during period January 2012 to December 2013. Total of 471 confirmed OSCC patients and 556 control subjects were enrolled. Data on socio-demography, risk habits with duration and medical history were recorded. Results: There were significant associations between OSCC with middle age (41-50years; unadjusted OR=1.63, 95%CI=1.05-2.52, p=0.02) (51-60 years; unadjusted OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.15-2.79, p=0.009) and male subjects (unadjusted OR=2.49, 95%CI=1.89-3.27, p=0.0001). Cases with both habits of tobacco chewing and smoking were at a higher risk for OSCC than tobacco chewing alone (unadjusted OR=0.52, 95%CI=0.38-0.72, p=0.0001), duration of risk habits also emerged as a responsible factor for the development of carcinoma. The majority of patients were presented in well-differentiated carcinomas (39.9%). Prevalence of advance stages (TNM stage III, IV) was 23.4% and 18.3% respectively. The buccal mucosa was the most common (35.5%) affected oral site. Conclusions: In most Asian countries, especially India, there is an important need to initiate the national level public awareness programs to control and prevent oral cancer by screening for early diagnosis and support a tobacco free environment.


Oral squamous cell carcinoma;smokeless tobacco;risk habits;histopathology


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