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Cytotoxicity Assessments of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum Seed Extracts on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells (HepG2)

  • Farshori, Nida Nayyar (Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University) ;
  • Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad (Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University) ;
  • Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad (Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University) ;
  • Musarrat, Javed (Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University) ;
  • Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali (Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University) ;
  • Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed (Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University)
  • Published : 2014.08.30

Abstract

The Pharmacological potential, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of Portulaca oleracea (PO) and Petroselinum sativum (PS) extracts are well known. However, the preventive properties against hepatocellular carcinoma cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to study the anticancer activity of seed extracts of PO and PS on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The HepG2 cells were exposed with $5-500{\mu}g/ml$ of PO and PS for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscope were studied. The results showed that PO and PS extracts significantly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 in a concentration dependent manner. The cell viability was recorded to be 67%, 31%, 21%, and 17% at 50, 100, 250, and $500{\mu}g/ml$ of PO, respectively by MTT assay and 91%, 62%, 27%, and 18% at 50, 100, 250, and $500{\mu}g/ml$ of PO, respectively by NRU assay. PS exposed HepG2 cells with $100{\mu}g/ml$ and higher concentrations were also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in the cell viability at 100, 250, and $500{\mu}g/ml$ of PS was recorded as 70%, 33%, and 15% by MTT assay and 63%, 29%, and 17%, respectively by NRU assay. Results also showed that PO and PS exposed cells reduced the normal morphology and adhesion capacity of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells exposed with $50{\mu}g/ml$ and higher concentrations of PO and PS lost their typical morphology, become smaller in size, and appeared in rounded bodies. Our results demonstrated preliminary screening of anticancer activity of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum extracts against HepG2 cells, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

Keywords

HepG2 cells;cytotoxicity;cellular morphology;anticancer activity

Acknowledgement

Supported by : NSTIP

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