DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of an Educational Intervention Based on the Protection Motivation Theory and Implementation Intentions on First and Second Pap Test Practice in Iran

  • Dehdari, Tahereh (Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hassani, Laleh (Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hajizadeh, Ebrahim (Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University) ;
  • Shojaeizadeh, Davoud (Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Nedjat, Saharnaz (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Abedini, Mehrandokht (Department of Family Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education)
  • Published : 2014.09.15

Abstract

Background: Few Iranian women take the Papanicolaou test despite its important role in preventing cervical cancer. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables and implementation intentions in the first and second Pap test practice among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-randomized controlled trial, 200 women who were referred to 30 primary health care clinics in Tehran were randomly selected. PMT variables and Pap test practice were measured at baseline and again after 3 and 15 months. The 4-week educational intervention program was conducted for the intervention group. Results: Following the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy, perceived vulnerability, and behavior intention variables were significantly higher in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the perceived severity, response efficacy, response cost, and fear between the two groups following the intervention. Higher percent of women in the intervention group had obtained first and second Pap test compared to the controls. Conclusions: The PMT and implementation intentions provide a suitable theory-based framework for developing educational interventions regarding Pap test practice in Iran.

Keywords

Protection motivation theory;pap test;educational studies;implementation intentions;Iran

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Iran University of Medical Sciences

References

  1. Shekhar S, Sharma C, Thakur S, et al (2013). Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of rural India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3641-5. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3641
  2. Sheeran P, Orbell S (2000) Using implementation intentions to increase attendance for cervical cancer screening. Health Psychol, 19, 283-9. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.19.3.283
  3. Steadman L, Quine L (2004). Encouraging young males to perform testicular self-examination: a simple, but effective, implementation intentions intervention. Br J Health Psychol, 9, 479-87. https://doi.org/10.1348/1359107042304551
  4. Wongwatcharanukul L, PromthetS, Bradshaw P, et al (2014). Factors affecting cervical cancer screening uptake by among hilltribe women in Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3753-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.8.3753
  5. Yucel U, ceber E, Ozenturk G (2009). Efficacy of a training course given by midwives concerning cervical cancer risk factors and prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 437-42.
  6. Rogers RW (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. J Psychology, 91, 93-114. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1975.9915803
  7. Rutter DR, Steadman L, Quine L (2006). An implementation intentions intervention to increase uptake of mammography. Ann Behav Med, 32, 127-34. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324796abm3202_10
  8. Abdullah AS, Leung TY (2001). Factors associated with the use of breast and cervical cancer screening services among chinese women in hong kong. Pub Health, 115, 212-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ph.1900753
  9. Abdullah F, Su TT (2010). Enhancement of the cervical cancer screening program in Malaysia: a qualitative study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 359-66.
  10. Akbari F, Shakibazadeh E, Pourreza A, et al (2010). Barriers and facilitating factors for cervical cancer screening: A qualitative study from iran. Iran J Cancer Prev, 3, 178-84.
  11. Allahverdipour H, Emami A (2008). Perceptions of cervical cancer threat, benefits, and barriers of Papanicolaou smear screening programs for women in iran. Women Health, 47, 23-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630240802132302
  12. Announcement the society of gynecologic oncologists' statement on a cervix cancer vaccine (2006). Gynecol Oncol, 10, 377.
  13. Bandura A, Adams NE, Beyer J (1977). Experiental processes mediating behavioral change. J Pers Soc Psychol, 35, 125-39. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.35.3.125
  14. Behtash N, Ghaemmaghami F, Ayatollahi H, et al (2005). A case control study to evaluate urinary tract complications in radical hysterectomy. World J Surg Oncol, 3, 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-3-12
  15. Brian T. McClendon, Steven Prentice-Dunn (2001). Reducing skin cancer risk: an intervention sased on protection motivation theory. J Health Psychol, 6, 321-8. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910530100600305
  16. Chumworathayi B, Yuenyao P, Luanratanakorn S, et al (2007). Can an appointment-letter intervention increase pap smear screening in Samliem, khon kaen, thailand? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 353-6.
  17. Demirtas B, Acikgoz I (2013). Promoting attendance at cervical cancer screening: understanding the relationship with Turkish womens' health beliefs. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 333-40. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.333
  18. Erbil N, Tezcan Y, Gur EN, et al (2010). Factors affecting cervical screening among Turkish women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 1641-4.
  19. Fang CY, Ma GX, Tan Y, et al (2007). A multifaceted intervention to increase cervical cancer screening among underserved Korean women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16, 1298-302. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0091
  20. FernaAndez-Esquer ME, Espinoza P, Ramirez AG, et al (2003). Repeated Pap smear screening among mexican-american women. Health Educ Res, 18, 477-87. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyf037
  21. Fry RB, Prentice-Dunn S (2006). Effects of a psychosocial intervention on breast self-examination attitudes and behaviors. Health Educ Res, 21, 287-95.
  22. Gollwitzer PM, Brandstatter V (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. J Pers Soc Psychol, 73, 186-99. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.1.186
  23. Gollwitzer PM (1993). Goal achievement: the role of intentions. Eur Rev Soc Psychol, 4, 141-85. https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779343000059
  24. Gu C, Chan CW, He GP, et al (2012). Chinese women's motivation to receive future screening: The role of socialdemographic factors, knowledge and risk perception of cervical cancer. Eur J Oncol Nurs, 17, 154-61.
  25. Hassani L, Dehdari T, Hajizadeh E, et al (2014). Development of an instrument based on the protection motivation theory to measure factors influencing women's intention to first Pap test practice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1227-32. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1227
  26. Helmes AW (2002). Application of the protection motivation theory to genetic testing for breast cancer risk. Prev Med, 35, 453-62. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.2002.1110
  27. Jelfs P (1995). Cervical cancer in australia. australian institute of health and welfare: cancer series No 3, AIHW, Canberra.
  28. Markovic M, Kesic V, Topic L, et al (2005). Barriers to cervical cancer screening: a qualitative study with women in Serbia. Soc Sci Med, 61, 2528-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.05.001
  29. Mcmat B, Prentice-Dunn S (2005). Protection motivation theory and skin cancer risk: the role of individual differences in responses to persuasive appeals. J Appl Soc Psychol, 35, 621-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02138.x
  30. Milne S, Orbell S, Sheeran P (2002). Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: Protection motivation theory and implementation intentions. Br J Health Psychol, 7, 163-84. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910702169420
  31. Mortazavi SH, Shahidi M, Shahrad B (2000). Changing trend in cancer incidence in iran. Cancer Strategy, 2, 13-6.
  32. Othman NH, Devi BC, Halimah Y (2009). Cervical cancer screening: patients' understanding in major hospitals in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 569-74.
  33. Park S, Chang S, Chung C (2005). Effects of a cognitionemotion focused program to increase public participation in Papanicolaou smear screening. Public Health Nurs, 22, 289-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220404.x
  34. Rezaie-Chamani S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Kamalifard M (2012). Knowledge, attitudes and practice about Pap smear among women referring to a public hospital. J Family Reprod Health, 6, 177-82.

Cited by

  1. Predictors of Sun-Protective Practices among Iranian Female College Students: Application of Protection Motivation Theory vol.16, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6477
  2. Prevention of Esophageal Cancer: Experience of an Educational Campaign for Reducing Hot Tea Consumption in Iran vol.17, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.305
  3. Investigation of the Role of Training Health Volunteers in Promoting Pap Smear Test Use among Iranian Women Based on the Protection Motivation Theory vol.17, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.3.1157
  4. Effect of cervical cancer education and provider recommendation for screening on screening rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis vol.12, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183924
  5. The effects of STI education on Korean adolescents using smartphone applications vol.76, pp.7, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896917714288
  6. Cognitive determinants of cervical cancer screening behavior among housewife women in Iran: An application of Health Belief Model vol.39, pp.5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2018.1425873