Effects of an Educational Intervention Based on the Protection Motivation Theory and Implementation Intentions on First and Second Pap Test Practice in Iran

  • Dehdari, Tahereh (Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hassani, Laleh (Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hajizadeh, Ebrahim (Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University) ;
  • Shojaeizadeh, Davoud (Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Nedjat, Saharnaz (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Abedini, Mehrandokht (Department of Family Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education)
  • Published : 2014.09.15


Background: Few Iranian women take the Papanicolaou test despite its important role in preventing cervical cancer. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables and implementation intentions in the first and second Pap test practice among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-randomized controlled trial, 200 women who were referred to 30 primary health care clinics in Tehran were randomly selected. PMT variables and Pap test practice were measured at baseline and again after 3 and 15 months. The 4-week educational intervention program was conducted for the intervention group. Results: Following the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy, perceived vulnerability, and behavior intention variables were significantly higher in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the perceived severity, response efficacy, response cost, and fear between the two groups following the intervention. Higher percent of women in the intervention group had obtained first and second Pap test compared to the controls. Conclusions: The PMT and implementation intentions provide a suitable theory-based framework for developing educational interventions regarding Pap test practice in Iran.


Supported by : Iran University of Medical Sciences


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