Effects of Preschool Children's Gender, Temperament, Emotional Regulation and Maternal Parenting Stress on Children's Overt Aggression and Relational Aggression

유아의 외현적 공격성 및 관계적 공격성에 대한 유아의 성, 기질, 정서조절능력, 어머니의 양육 스트레스의 영향

  • Han, Jun Ah (Dept. of Child Edu-Care, Suwon Science College) ;
  • Cho, Yoonjoo (Dept. of Social Welfare, Sungshin Women's University) ;
  • Kim, Jihyun (Dept. of Child Studies and Education, Hanyang Cyber University)
  • 한준아 (수원과학대학교 아동보육과) ;
  • 조윤주 (성신여자대학교 사회복지학과) ;
  • 김지현 (한양사이버대학교 아동학과)
  • Received : 2014.06.30
  • Accepted : 2014.08.11
  • Published : 2014.08.30


The purposes of this study were (1) to explore the gender differences in children's overt aggression and relational aggression and (2) to investigate the effects of preschool children's gender, temperament, emotional regulation, and maternal parenting stress on overt aggression and relational aggression. The participants were 173 preschool children and their mothers from three day care center and two kindergarten in Seoul and Gyeong-gi province. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, correlations, and multiple regressions. The results were as follows: (1) There was statistically significant gender difference in preschool children's overt aggression, but there was statistically no significant gender difference in preschool children's relational aggression. Boys displayed more overt aggression than girls. (2) Preschool children's emotional regulation and activity explained children's overt aggression and relational aggression. When preschool children expressed more emotional regulation, they showed less overt aggression and relational aggression. Preschool children, who perceived having more activity from mothers, diaplayed more overt aggression and relational aggression. Gender was found to affect preschool children's overt aggression.


  1. Abidin, R. R. (1990). Introduction to the special issue: The stress of parenting. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19(4), 298-301.
  2. Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting stress index-manual. charlottesville. VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
  3. Ahn, J. Y., & Park, S. Y. (2002). The effects of maternal parental beliefs, efficacy and stress on mother's parenting behaviors. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 40(1), 53-68.
  4. Calkins, S. D.(1994). Origin and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. In N. A. Fox(Eds.). The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations(pp. 53-72). Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development(vol.59, nos. 2-3, serial no.240). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  5. Block, J. H. (1983). Differntial premises arising from differential socialization of the sexes: Some conjectures. Child Development, 54, 1335-1354.
  6. Bonica, C., Arnold, D. H., Fisher, P. H., & Zeljo, A. (2003). Relational aggression, relational victimization, and language development in preschoolers. Social Development, 12, 551-562.
  7. Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early Developing Personality Traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  8. Caspi, A., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperament qualities at age three predict personality traits in young adulthood: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Child Development. 66, 486-498.
  9. Chang, L., Schwartz, D., Dodge, K., & McBride-Chang, C. (2003). Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 598-606.
  10. Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In N. Eisenberg (Eds.), W. Damon (Series Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social emotional and personality development (5th Ed.). New York: Wiley.
  11. Crick, N. R. (1995). Relational aggression: The role of intent attribuitions, feelings of distress, and provocation type. Developmental Psychology, 33, 313-322.
  12. Crick, N. R. (1997). Engagement in gender normative versus non-normative forms of aggression: Links to social-psychological adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 610-617.
  13. Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., Burr, J. E., Cullerton-Sen, C., Jansen-Yeh, E., & Ralston, P. (2006). A longitudinal study of relational and physical ggression in preschool. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 254-268.
  14. Crick, N. R., Casas, J. F., & Mosher, M. (1997). Relational aggression and physical aggression in preschool. Developmental Psychology, 33, 579-588.
  15. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information processing mechanism in chidlren's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101.
  16. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710-722.
  17. Crnic, K. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (1990). Minor parenting stress with young children. Child Development, 61, 1628-1637.
  18. Davis, T, L.(1995). Gender differences in masking negative emotions: Ability or motivation? Developmental Psychology, 31, 660-667.
  19. Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Young children's coping with interpersonal anger. Child Development, 63, 116-128.
  20. Hair, J., Anderson, R., & Black, W. (2009). Multivariate data analysis. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  21. Hawkins, D. F.(1998). Violence and childhood in the inner city. American Journal of Sociology, 104(3), 908-909.
  22. Huth-Bocks, A. C., & Hughes, H. M. (2008). Parenting stress, parenting behavior, and children's adjustment in families experiencing intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 23(4), 243-251.
  23. Jang, Y. A., & Lee, Y. J. (2012). Effects of maternal behaviors, parenting stresses, and marital conflicts on children's aggression. Korean Journal of Family Therapy, 20(3), 357-373.
  24. Kim, K. H., & Kim, K. H. (1999). Construct validation of young children's emotional intelligence. Korean Journal of Psychology: Developmental. 12(1), 25-38.
  25. Kim, J. H., Chung, J. N., Kwon, Y. H., & Min, S. H. (2009). Relations between mothers' responses about their preschoolers' overt and relational aggression by preschoolers' aggressive behaviors. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 30(2), 145-159.
  26. Kim, J. Y., Do, H. S., & Kim, M. J. (2008). Problem Behavior of Preschool Children: The Influence of Marital Conflict and of Children's Temperament and Emotion Regulation. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 29(5), 133-150.
  27. Kim, K. H., & Kang, H. K. (1997). Development of the parenting stress scale. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association. 35(5). 141-150.
  28. Kim. S. A., & Park, S. Y. (2009). Relationships between caregivers' attachment, young children's emotion regulation and aggression: Institutionalized vs home-reared children. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 30(1), 43-57.
  29. Kim. Y. (2010). Analysis of variables affecting young children's relational and external aggression. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 48(1), 55-66.
  30. Kwon, Y. H. (2011). Children's relational and overt aggression in relation to their negative emotionality, emotional regulation, and maternal parenting behaviors, Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 20(5), 927-940.
  31. Lee, S. B., & Shin, Y. L. (2010). Associations of aggression, maternal rejection/neglect, child temperament, and daycare experience: The moderating effect of self-regulation. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 28(3), 73-80.
  32. Lee, S. B., & Shin, Y. L. (2011). Effects of child, day care, and home variables on physical and relational aggression of preschool children. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 49(2), 111-120.
  33. Ostrov, J. M., & Keating, C. F. (2004). Gender differences in preschool aggression during free play and structured interactions: An observational study. Social Development, 13, 255-277.
  34. Loeber, R., & Hay, D. F.(1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371-340.
  35. Oh, J. Y., & Yu, K. J. (2007). An ecological approach to analyzing variable in parenting stress. The Journal of Korea Early Childhood Education, 12(5), 73-94.
  36. Ostrov, J. M., Burr, J. E., Jensen, E. A., Cullerton-Sen, C., & Crick, N. R. (2004). Relational and physical aggression in early childhood: A longitudinal examination. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the conference on human development, Washington DC.
  37. Park, H. J., & Moon, H. J. (2012). The effects of a mother's guilty conscience and parenting stress on parenting behavior. Journal of Korean Child Care and Education. 8(2), 121-137.
  38. Park, J. S., Lim, S. H., & Park, S. Y. (2009). Effects of child's temperament, mother's parenting behavior, and child's emotion regulation on child aggression and social withdrawl. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 30(3), 85-98.
  39. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
  40. Pope, A. W., & Bierman, L. K. (1999). Predicting adolescent peer problems and antisocial activities: the roles of aggression and deregulation. Developmental Psychology, 35, 335-346.
  41. Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Temperament. In W. Damon (Ed.). Handbook of child psychology: Volume 3. Social emotional, and personality development (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.
  42. Rubin, K., Stewart, S., & Chen, X. (1995). Parents of aggressive and withdrawn children. In M. Bornstein(Ed.), Handbook of parenting. NJ: LEA.
  43. Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Seguin, J. R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P. D., Bolvin, M., Perusse, D., & Japel, C. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114(1), 43-50.
  44. Shin, Y. L. (2010). The influence of maternal love withdrawal, preschoolers' emotional regulation, verbal ability on relational aggression. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 48(7), 15-22.
  45. Song, M. J., & Han, S. Y. (2011). Effects of mother's neuroticism, parenting stress and young children's stress on problem behaviors. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 49(5), 117-127.
  46. Swit, C., & McMaugh, A. (2012). Relational aggression and prosocial behaviors in Australian preschool children. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(3), 30-34.
  47. Underwood, M. K., Coie, J. D., & Herbsman, C. R.(1992). Display rules for anger and aggression in school-age children. Child Development, 63, 366-380.
  48. Vailancourt, T., Miiler, J. L., Fagbemi, J., Cote, S., & Tremblay, R. (2007). Trajectories and predictors of indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 314-326.
  49. Youn, J. J., Kang, S. Y., & Lee, B. J. (2005). Astudy for young children's aggression and relationship of relative factors: Concentrating on young children's temperament, self-regulation, and mother's parenting efficacy, parenting behaviors. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 14(5), 761-770.

Cited by

  1. The Structural Relationships of Personal and Environmental Factors on Child Aggression: Focusing on Child Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation, Mother Rejective Parenting, and Teacher-Child Conflict vol.37, pp.4, 2016,