DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Attenuant Effects of Hovenia dulcis Extract on Inflammatory Orifacial Pain in Rats

헛개나무 추출물이 안면염증통증의 경감효과

  • Received : 2014.06.03
  • Accepted : 2014.08.07
  • Published : 2014.08.31

Abstract

Hovenia dulcis extract (HDE) has positive effects on alcohol degradation, recovery of liver damage and antioxidant activities. This study examined whether HDE exerts an ameliorative effect on inflammatory orifacial pain in an animal algesic model with formalin. The animals (rats) were divided into four groups: group I (control), group II (right facial subcutaneous injection of 5% formalin, inflammatory orifacial pain group), group III (5% formalin + distilled water administration), and group IV injection (5% formalin + 4.5 ml/kg of HDE), respectively. The scores from the scratch and effleurage tests were applied to evaluate the differences between three groups. The expression of p38 MAPK, iNOS and Nrf2 in the brain and medulla oblongata, which are involved in pain regulation, inflammation, antioxidation and nitric oxide production, were analyzed by western blot. The degree of orifacial pain was significantly lower in group IV than in groups I, II and, III. The expression of p38MAPK, iNOS and Nrf2 in the brain and medulla were also lower in group IV than in the other groups. These findings suggested that a Hovenia dulcis extract can attenuate inflammatory orifacial pain by suppressing the expression of p38 MAPK, iNOS and Nrf2.

Keywords

Hovenia dulcis;iNOS;Nrf2;Orofacial pain;P38 MAPK

References

  1. A. P. Gadelha, F. Vidal, T. M. Castro, C. S. Lopes, N. Albarello, M. G. Coelho, S. F. Figueirede, L. H. Monteiro-Leal, "Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to Hovenia dulcis extracts", Parasitol Res, 97, 399-407, 2005. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-1476-6 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-1476-6
  2. H. Y. Lee, H. S. Kim, Y. S. Park, "Hovenodulinol, an active compound extracted from Hovenia dulcis Thunb., a process for preparing the same, and an alcohol decomposing agent or an agent for allevating lingering intoxication containing the same", Korean patent WO/2002/024678 A1
  3. J. Xiang, W. Zhu, Z. Li, S. Ling, "Effect of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in mice", Food Funct, 3(6), 628-34, 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2fo10266h https://doi.org/10.1039/c2fo10266h
  4. Y. Ji, S. Chen, K. Zhang, W. Wang, "Effect of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. on blood sugar and hepatic glycogen in diabetic mice", Zhong Yao Cai, 25, 190-191, 2001.
  5. J. Y. Cho, J. H. Moon, K. H. Park, "Isolation and identification of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid from hot water extracts of Hovenia dulcis THUNB. and confirmation of their antioxidative and antimicrobial activity", Korean J Food Sci Technol, 32, 1403-1408, 2000.
  6. P. H. Cha, W. j. Shin, M. Zahoor, H. Y. Kim, D. S. Min, K. Y. Choi, "Hovenia dulcis Thunb Extract and Its Ingredient Methyl Vanillate Activate Wnt/${\beta}$-Catenin Pathway and Increase Bone Mass in Growing or Ovariectomized Mice", PLoS One, 9(1), e85546, 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085546 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085546
  7. U. S. Na, S. Y. Yoon, J. B. Kim, D. S. Na, M. S. Dong, M. Y. Lee, C. Y. Hong, "Anti-fatigue activity of Hovenia dulcis on a swimming mouse model through the inhibition of stress hormone expression and antioxidation", Am J Chin Med, 41(4), 945-55, 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X13500638 https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X13500638
  8. J. H. Kim, Y. M. Seo, J. H. Kim, J. H. Hyun, S. K. Lee, C. H. Kim, M. J. Kang, T. W. Jeon, S. H. Yoon, T. C. Jeong, "Protective Effects of the Water Extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb Against Ethanol-Induced Toxicity in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes", Yarhar Hoeji, 52(1), 56-61, 2008.
  9. G. Li, B. S. Min, C. Zheng, J. Lee, S. R. Oh, K. S. Ahn, H. K. Lee, "Neuroprotective and free radical scavenging activities of phenolic compounds from Hovenia dulcis", Arch Pharm Res, 28(7), 804-9, 2005. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02977346 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02977346
  10. J. Y. Jang, Y. W. Choi, H. N. Kim, Y. R. Kim, J. W. Hong, D. W. Bae, S. J. Park, H. K. Shin, B. T. Choi, "Neuroprotective Effects of a Novel Single Compound 1-Methoxyoctadecan-1-ol Isolated from Uncaria sinensis in Primary Cortical Neurons and a Photothrombotic Ischemia Model", PLoS One, 9(1), 85322, 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085322 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085322
  11. A. Krzyzanowska, C. Avendano, "Behaviroal testing in rodent medels of orofacial neuropathic and inflammatory pain" Brain and Behavior, 2(5), 678-697, 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.85 https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.85
  12. P. H. Cha, W. Shin, M. Zahoor, H. Y. Kim, do. S. Min, K. Y. Choi, "Hovenia dulcis Thunb extract and its ingredient methyl vanillate activate Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin pathway and increase bone mass in growing or ovariectomized mice", PLoS One, 22, 9(1), 85546, 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085546 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085546
  13. T. ZARUBIN1, J. HAN, "Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway", Cell Research, 15, 11-18, 2005. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.cr.7290257 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.cr.7290257
  14. C. Zhou, X. Shi, H. Huang, Y. Zhu, Y. Wu, "Montelukast Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Through Inhibiting p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B in a Rat Model of Chronic Constriction Injury", Anesth Analg, 118(5), 1090-6, 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000000174 https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000000174
  15. F. Aktan, "iNOS-mediated nitric oxide production and its regulation", Life Sciences, 75(6), 639-653, 2004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2003.10.042 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2003.10.042
  16. J. W. Kaspar, S. K. Niture, A.K. Jaiseal, "Nrf2/INrf2 (Keap1) Signaling in Oxidative Stress", Free Radic Biol Med, 47(9), 1304-9, 2009. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.07.035 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.07.035