A Comparative Study of Restaurant Customers' Waiting Time in a Quasi-experimental Setting

유사실험설계에 의한 레스토랑 고객의 대기시간 비교연구

  • Bae, Gumkwang (Dept. of Hospitality Management, University of Missouri) ;
  • Kim, Dae-Young (Dept. of Hospitality Management, University of Missouri)
  • 배금광 (미국 미주리 대학, 호스피탈리티 경영학과) ;
  • 김대영 (미국 미주리 대학, 호스피탈리티 경영학과)
  • Received : 2013.08.15
  • Accepted : 2014.06.10
  • Published : 2014.06.30


In recognition of the significance of waiting time in restaurant management, a quasi-experimental design was employed to measure the gap between actual and perceived waiting time in a real restaurant setting. In particular, this study focused on a comparison of Americans and Koreans to explore gender and culture differences in customer waiting behaviors. The results indicated that compared to American women, Korean women are more tolerant of waiting, and reported perceived waiting time as much longer than actual waiting time. However, there are no gender differences in both cultures. It is anticipated that managers will be able to adjust their operational strategies based on these results.

레스토랑 경영에서 대기시간의 중요성에 대한 인식과 함께, 물리적 시간과 인지적 시간의 차이를 측정하기 위한 유사설계 실험연구가 실제 레스토랑 환경에서 실행되었다. 특히, 본 연구는 미국고객과 한국고객의 성별 과 문화적 차이에 따른 대기시간 행동 비교를 집중적으로 탐색하였다. 그 결과, 한국 여성고객들에 비하여 미국 여성고객이 대기시간에 대하여 더 빨리 불편하게 반응하였다. 또한, 한국 여성고객들이 다른 고객들에 비해 실제 경험한 물리적 시간보다 더 많이 기다린 것으로 인지하였다. 하지만, 성별에 따른 인지적, 물리적 대기시간의 차이는 양 집단 모두에서 발견되지 않았다. 본 연구의 결과를 바탕으로 레스토랑 운영자들이 레스토랑 운영전략을 수정할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.



  1. Bielen F, Demoulin N (2007) Waiting time influence on the satisfaction-loyalty relationship in services. Managing Service Quality 17(2): 174-193. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520710735182
  2. Beynon MJ, Moutinho L, Veloutsou C (2010) Gender differences in supermarket choice: An expositional analysis in the presence of ignorance using CaRBS. European J Marketing 44(1/2): 267-290. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090561011008709
  3. Cameron MA, Baker J, Peterson M, Braunsberger K (2003) The effects of music, wait-length evaluation, and mood on a low-cost wait experience. J Business Res 53: 421-430.
  4. Darley WK, Smith RE (1995) Gender differences in information processing strategies: An empirical test of the selectivity model in advertising response. J Advertising 24(1): 41-59.
  5. Dube-Rioux L, Schmitt BH, Leclerc F (1988) Consumer's reactions to waiting: When delays affect the perception of service quality. Advances in Consumer Research, 16, T. Srull, ed. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Res 59-63.
  6. Durrande-Moreau A (1999) Waiting for service: ten years of empirical research. International J Service Industry Management 10(2): 171-189. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564239910264334
  7. Eagly AH, Wood W (1991) Explaining sex differences in social behavior: A meta-analytic perspective. Personality & social Psychology Bulletin 17: 306-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167291173011
  8. Fan JX, Xiao JJ (1998)Consumer decision-making styles of young Chinese. J Consumer Affairs 32: 275-294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.1998.tb00410.x
  9. Feingold A (1994) Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 116(3): 429-456. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.429
  10. Gibson R (2008, June). U.S. restaurants push abroad. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121376250284483647.html#articleTabs%3Darticle
  11. Hofstede GH (2001) Culture's consequences (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  12. Hornik J (1984) Subjective vs. Objective time measures: A note on the perception of time in consumer behavior. J Consumer Res 11(1): 615-618. https://doi.org/10.1086/208998
  13. Houston MB, Bettencourt LA, Wenger S (1998) The relationship between waiting in a service queue and evaluations of service quality: a field theory perspective. Psychology & Marketing 15(8):735-753. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199812)15:8<735::AID-MAR2>3.0.CO;2-9
  14. Hui MK, Tse DK (1996) What to tell consumers in waits of different lengths: An integrative model of service evaluation. J Marketing 60: 81-90. https://doi.org/10.2307/1251932
  15. Hwang J, Lambert CU (2005) Customers' identification of acceptable waiting times in a muti-stage restaurant system. J Foodservice Business Res 8(1):3-16.
  16. Iyengar SS, Lepper MR (2000) When choice is demotivating: Can one desire too much of a good thing? J Personality & Social Psychology 79:995-1006. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.6.995
  17. Jones P, Peppiatt E (1996) Managing perceptions of waiting times in service queues. International J Service 7(5): 47-61. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564239610149957
  18. Kim DY, Lehto XY, Morrison AM (2006)Gender differences in online travel information search: Implications for marketing communications on the internet. Tourism Management 28: 423-433.
  19. Kim DY, Wen L, Doh K (2010)Does cultural difference affect customer's response in a crowded restaurant environment? A comparison of American versus Chinese customers. J Hospitality & Tourism Res 34(1): 103-123. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348009349817
  20. Kim HS, Sherman DK (2007) "Express yourself" Culture and the effect of self-expression on choice. J Personality & Social Psychology 92(1): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.1.1
  21. Lee W, Lambert CU (2000)Impact of waiting time on evaluation of service quality and customer satisfaction in foodservice operations. Foodservice Res International 12: 241-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4506.2000.tb00021.x
  22. Maccoby EE, Jacklin CN (1974) The psychology of sex differences. Standford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  23. Maister D (1985) The psychology of waiting lines. In Czepiel J.A., Solomon M. and Surprenant C.S. (Ed.), The Service Encounter, Lexington Books, MA.
  24. McDonnell J (2007) Music, scent and time preferences for waiting lines. International J Bank Marketing 25(4): 223-237. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652320710754015
  25. Mooij M (2005) Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  26. Park SY (1998) A comparison of Korean and American gift-giving behavior. Psychology & Marketing 15(6): 577-593. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199809)15:6<577::AID-MAR6>3.0.CO;2-3
  27. Pruyn A, Smidts A (1998) Effects of waiting on the satisfaction with the service: Beyond objective time measures. International J Res in Marketing 15: 321-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(98)00008-1
  28. Putrevu S (2001)Exploring the origins and information processing differences between men and women: Implications for advertisers (online). Academy of Marketing Science Review, Available http://www.amsreview.org/articles/putrevu10-2001.pdf.
  29. Remland MS, Jones TS, Brinkman H (1995) Interpersonal distance, body orientation, and touch: effects of culture, gender, and age. J Social Psychology 135: 281-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1995.9713958
  30. Sampson SE, Seawright KK (2007) A video method for empirically studying wait-perception bias. J Operations Management 25: 1055-1066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2006.10.006
  31. Sarkar A, Mukhopadhyay AR, Ghosh, SK (2011)Improvement of service quality by reducing waiting time for service. Stimulation Modeling Practice & Theory 19: 1689-1698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simpat.2011.03.004
  32. Sasser WE, Olsen M, Wyckoff DD (1978) The Management of Service Operations. Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MA.
  33. Triandis HC (1990) Cross-cultural studies of individualism and collectivism. In J. Berman (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 41-133). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  34. Wimmer RD, Dominick JR (2010) Mass Media Research: An Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  35. Yalch RF, Spangenberg ER (2000) The effects of music in a retail setting on real and perceived shopping times. J Business Res 49: 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00003-X
  36. Yamamoto JA, Yamamoto JB, Yamamoto BE, Yamamoto LG (2005)Adolescent fast food and restaurant ordering behavior with and without calorie and fat content menu information. J Adolescent Health 37: 397-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.10.002