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Characterization of Microbial Diversity of Metal-Reducing Bacteria Enriched from Groundwater and Reduction/Biomineralization of Iron and Manganese

KURT 지하심부 지하수 내 토착 금속환원미생물의 종 다양성 및 철/망간의 환원과 생광물화작용

  • Kim, Yumi (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Oh, Jong-Min (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Jung, Hea-Yeon (Korea Basic Science Institute) ;
  • Lee, Seung Yeop (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) ;
  • Roh, Yul (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Chonnam National University)
  • 김유미 (전남대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 오종민 (전남대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 정혜연 (한국기초과학지원연구원 광주센터) ;
  • 이승엽 (한국원자력연구원 방사성폐기물기술개발부) ;
  • 노열 (전남대학교 지구환경과학과)
  • Received : 2014.06.10
  • Accepted : 2014.08.31
  • Published : 2014.08.28

Abstract

The purposes of this research were to investigate the enrichment of metal-reducing bacteria from KURT groundwater and the identification of the microbial diversity by 16S rRNA as well as to examine microbial Fe(III)/Mn(IV) reduction and to analyze morphological features of interactions between microbes and precipitates and their mineralogical composition. To cultivate metal-reducing bacteria from groundwater sampled at the KURT in S. Korea, different electron donors such as glucose, acetate, lactate, formate, pyruvate and Fe(III)-citrate as an electron accepter were added into growth media. The enriched culture was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for the diversity of microbial species. The effect of electron donors (i.e., glucose, acetate, lactate, formate, pyruvate) and electron acceptors (i.e., akaganeite, manganese oxide) on microbial iron/manganese reduction and biomineralization were examined using the 1st enriched culture, respectively. SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses were used to determine morphological features, chemical composition of microbes and mineralogical characteristics of the iron and manganese minerals. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, the four species, Fusibacter, Desulfuromonas, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas sp., from KURT groundwater were identified as anaerobic metal reducers and these microbes precipitated metals outside of cells in common. XRD and EDX analyses showed that Fe(III)-containing mineral, akaganeite (${\beta}$-FeOOH), reduced into Fe(II)/Fe(III)-containing magnetite ($Fe_3O_4$) and Mn(IV)-containing manganese oxide (${\lambda}-MnO_2$) into Mn(II)-containing rhodochrosite ($MnCO_3$) by the microbes. These results implicate that microbial metabolism and respiratory activities under anaerobic condition result in reduction and biomineralization of iron and manganese minerals. Therefore, the microbes cultivated from groundwater in KURT might play a major role to reduce various metals from highly toxic, mobile to less toxic, immobile.

Keywords

metal-reducing bacteria;iron;manganese;biomineralization;groundwater

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국원자력연구원

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