Occurrence and Geochemical Characteristics of the Haenam Pb-Zn Skarn Deposit

해남 연-아연 스카른광상의 산상과 지화학적 특성

  • Im, Heonkyung (Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, Kongju National University) ;
  • Shin, Dongbok (Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, Kongju National University) ;
  • Heo, Seonhee (Business Support Division, Korea Resources Corporation)
  • 임헌경 (공주대학교 지질환경과학과) ;
  • 신동복 (공주대학교 지질환경과학과) ;
  • 허선희 (한국광물자원공사 탐사지원처)
  • Received : 2014.07.08
  • Accepted : 2014.08.26
  • Published : 2014.08.28


The Haenam Pb-Zn skarn deposit is located at the Hwawon peninsula in the southwestern part of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt. The deposit is developed along the contact between limestone of the Ogcheon group and Cretaceous quartz porphyry. Petrography of ore samples, chemical composition of skarn and ore minerals, and geochemistry of the related igneous rocks were investigated to understand the characteristics of the skarn mineralization. Skarn zonation consists of garnet${\pm}$pyroxene${\pm}$calcite${\pm}$quartz zone, pyroxene+garnet+quartz${\pm}$calcite zone, calcite+pyroxene${\pm}$garnet zone, quartz+calcite${\pm}$pyroxene zone, and calcite${\pm}$chlorite zone in succession toward carbonate rock. Garnet commonly shows zonal texture comprised of andradite and grossular. Pyroxene varies from Mn-hedenbergite to diopside as away from the intrusive rock. Chalcopyrite occurs as major ore mineral near the intrusive rock, and sphalerite and galena tend to increase as going away. Electron probe microanalyses revealed that FeS contents of sphalerite become decreased from 5.17 mole % for garnet${\pm}$pyroxene${\pm}$calcite${\pm}$quartz zone to 2.93 mole %, and to 0.40 mole % for calcite+pyroxene${\pm}$garnet zone, gradually. Ag and Bi contents also decreased from 0.72 wt.% and 1.62 wt.% to <0.01 wt.% and 0.11 wt.%, respectively. Thus, the Haenam deposit shows systematic variation of species and chemical compositions of ore minerals with skarn zoned texture. The related intrusive rock, quartz porphyry, expresses more differentiated characteristics than Zn-skarn deposit of Meinert(1995), and has relatively high$SiO_2$ concentration of 72.76~75.38 wt.% and shows geochemical features classified as calc-alkaline, peraluminous igneous rock and volcanic arc tectonic setting.


Haenam Pb-Zn deposit;skarn;garnet;sphalerite;quartz porphyry


Supported by : 한국광물자원공사


  1. Chough, S.K. and Sohn, Y.K. (2010) Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of a Cretaceous continental arcbackarc system in the Korean penisula: New view. Earth Science Reviews, v.101, p.225-249.
  2. Chang, H.W., Lee, M.S. and Cho, D.J. (1990) Comparison of geochemical characteristics of the Shinyemi Granite and the Imog Granite, northeastern part of South Korea. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, v.26, p.313-323.
  3. Choi, B.K., Choi, S.G., Seo, J., Yoo, I.K., Kang, H.S., and Koo, M.H. (2010) Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of the Wolgok-seongok orebodies in the Gagok skarn deposit : their genetic implication. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.43, p.477-490.
  4. Choi, S.G. (1993) Compositional variations of sphalerites and their genetic characteristics from gold and/or silver deposits in central Korea. Journal of the Korean Institute of Mining Geology, v.26, p.135-144.
  5. Choi, S.G. Ryu, I.C. Pak, S.J. Wee, S.M. Kim, C.S. and Park, M.E. (2005) Cretaceous epithermal gold-silver mineralization and geodynamic environment, Korea. Ore Geology Reviews, v.26, p.115-135.
  6. Chon, H.T. and Shimazaki, H. (1986) Iron, manganese and cadmium contents of sphalerites and their genetical implications to hydrothermal metallic ore deposits in korea. Journal of the Korean Institute of Mining Geology, v.19, p.139-149.
  7. Chough, S.K., Kwon, S.T., Ree, J.H. and Choi, D.K. (2000) Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Korea peninsula: a review and new view. earth-science reviews, v.52, p.175-235.
  8. Chun, S.S. and Chough, S.K. (1992) Tectonic history of Cretaceous sedimentary basins in the southwestern Korean Peninsula and Yellow Sea. In: Chough, S. K. (ed.), Sedimentary Basin in the Korean Peninsula and Adjacent Seas. Korean Sediment. Res. Group Spec. Publ. Harnlimwon Publishers, Seoul, p.60-76.
  9. Cook, N.J., Ciobanue, C.L., Pring, A., Skinner, W., Shimizu, M., Danyushevsky, L., Saini-Eidukat, B. and Melcher, F. (2009) Trace and minor elements in sphalerite: A LA-ICP-MS study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. v.73, p.4761-4791.
  10. Einaudi, M.T. and Burt, D.M. (1982) A special issue devoted to skarn deposits Introduction-Terminology, Classification, and Composition of Skarn Deposits. Economic geology, v.77, p.745-754.
  11. KIGAM (2000) Geological report of the Muan sheet (1:25,000). 58p.
  12. Henderson, P. (1984) General geochemical properties and abundances of the rare earth elements. In: Henderson, P. (ed), Rare Earth Element Geochemistry, Elsevier, Netherlands, 1-32.
  13. Irvine T.N. and Baragar W.R.A. (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian ournal of Earth Sciences, v.8, p.523-548.
  14. Kang, J.H., Lee, D.S., Ryoo, C.R., Koh, S.M. and Chi, S.J. (2011) Geological structure of the Moisan epithermal Au-Ag Mineralized zone, Haenam and its tectonic environment at the time of the mineralization. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.44, p.413-431.
  15. KIGAM (2002) Explanatory note of the Mokpo and Yeosu sheets(1:250,000).
  16. Kim, Y.J., Oh, M.S. and Kang, S.W. (1994) Petrochemistry of igneous rocks in the Haenam-Gangjin area. Journal of the Korean Earth Science Society, v.15, p.341-355.
  17. Kim, E.J., Hong, Y.K. and Chi, S.J. (2011) Geochemical variation of Hwangsan volcanic complex by large hydrothermal alteration. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.44, p.95-107.
  18. Kim, E.J., Park, M.E. and Sung, K.Y. (2009) Preliminary study of oxidized Au skarn model in the Geodo mine area to mineral exploration. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.42, p.289-300.
  19. Kim, I.J. and Nagao, K. (1992) K-Ar ages of the hydrothermal clay deposits and the surrounding igneous rocks in southwest Korea. Joural of the Petrological Society of Korea, v.1, p.58-70.
  20. Kim, K.H., Nakai, N. and Kim, O.J. (1981) A mineralogical study of the skarn minerals from the Shinyemi lead-zinc ore deposits. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, v.14, p.167-182.
  21. Kuno, H. (1968) Differentiation of basalt magmas. In. Hess H.H. and Poldervaart A. (eds.), Basalts: The Poldervaart treatise on rocks of basaltic composition, v.2. Interscience, New York, p.623-688.
  22. Koh, S.M. and Chang, H.W. (1996) Geological interpretation on the cretaceous strata in the Haenam area, Chollanamdo, Korea. Economic and Environmental Geology. v.29, p.381-393.
  23. Koh, S.M. and Chang, H.W. (1997) Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Bukok hydrothermal clay deposits in the Haenam area, Korea. Resource Geology, v.47, p.29-40.
  24. KORES (1981) Ore deposit of South Korea. v.8, p.196-197.
  25. Kwak, T.A.P. and White, A.J.R. (1982) Contrasting W-Mo-Cu and W-Sn-F skarn types and related granitoids. Mining Geology, v.32, p.339-351.
  26. Lee, J.Y., Lee, I.H. and Hwang, D.H. (1996) Chemical composition of the cretaceous granitoids and related ore deposits in the Taebaegsan basin, Korea. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.29, p.247-256.
  27. Lightfoot, P.C., Hawkesworth, C.J., Hergt, J., Naldrett, A.J., Gorbachev, N.S., Fedorenko, V.A. and Doherty, W. (1993) Remobilisation of the continental lithosphere by a mantle plume; Major-, Trace-element, and Sr-, Nd-, and Pb-isotope evidence from picritic and tholeiitic lavas of the Norilisk District, Siberian Trap, Russia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v.114, p,171-188.
  28. Lim, O., Yu, J., Koh, S.M. and Heo, C.H. (2013) Mineralogy and Chemical compositions of Dangdu Pb-Zn deposit. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.46, p.123-140.
  29. Maruyama, S., Isozaki, Y., Kimura, G. and Terabayashi, M. (1997) Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: Plate tectonic synthesis from 750 Ma to the present. The Island Arc, v.6, p.121-142.
  30. Meinert, L.D. (1992) Skarn and skarn deposits. Geoscience Canada, v.19, p.145-162.
  31. Meinert, L.D., Dipple, G.M. and Nicolescu, S. (2005) World Skarn Deposits. Society of Economic Geologists, Economic geology 100th anniversary, p.299-336.
  32. Meinert, L.D. (1995) Compositional variation of igneous rocks associated with skarn depositsnChemical evidence for a genetic connection between petrogenesis and mineralization. in Thompson, J.F.H., ed., magmas, fluids, and ore deposits, Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series, v.23, p.401-418.
  33. Meinert, L.D. (1997) Application of Skarn Deposit Zonation Models to Mineral Exploration. Exploration and Mining Geology, v.6, p.185-208.
  34. Meinert, L.D. (1998) A review of skarns that contain gold: Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series. v.26, p.359-414.
  35. Mizuta, T., Shimazaki, H., Kaneda, H. and Lee, M.S. (1984) Compositional variation of sphalerites from some Au-Ag ore deposits in South Korea. In: Tsusue, A. (ed.) Granitic Provinces and Associated Ore Deposits in South Korea, p.127-152.
  36. Moon, D.H., Koh, S.M. and Lee, G.J. (2010) Geochemistry of the Moisan Epithermal Gold-silver Deposit in Haenam Area. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.43, p.491-503.
  37. Moon. H.S., Kim, Y.H., Kim, J.H. and You, J.H. (1990) KAr ages of alunite and sericite in altered rocks, and volcanic rocks around the Haenam area, Southwest Korea. Journal of Korean Institute of Mining Geology, v.23, p.135-131.
  38. Moon, S.H. and Park, H.I. (1994) Alterations of granite gneiss and their genetic relationship to tin mineralization in the Uljin area. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, v.30, p.125-139.
  39. Newberry, R.J. and Swanson, S.E. (1986) Scheelite skarn granitoids: an evaluation of the roles of magmatic source and process. Ore Geology Reviews, v.1, p.57-81.
  40. Seo, J., Choi, S.G., Kim, C.S., Park, J.W., Yoo, I.K. and Kim N.H. (2007) The skarnification and Fe-Mo Mineralization at lower part of western Shinyemi ore body in Taeback area. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, v.20, p.35-46.
  41. Palero-Fernandez, F.J., Martin-Izard, A. (2005) Trace element contents in galena and sphalerite from ore deposits of the Alcudia Valley mineral field (Eastern Sierra Morena, Spain). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v.86, p.1-25.
  42. Park, H.I., Moon, S.H. and Woo, Y.K. (1994) Lead-zinc mineralization of Sangra mine. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, v.30, p.1-14.
  43. Pearce, J.A., Harris, N.B.W., and Tindle, A.G. (1984) Trace-element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology, v.25, p.956-983.
  44. Yang, C.M. and Choi, J.B. (2010) Occurrence of the Pb-Zn skarn deposits in Gukjeon mine, Korea. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, v.23, p.413-428.
  45. Yoo, B.C., Oh, J.Y., Kang, H.S. and Lee, H.K. (2006) Ore minerals and genetic environments of quartz veins from the Hwawon area, Haenam, Korea. Economic and Environmental Geology, v.39, p.583-595.
  46. Yun, S. and Einaudi, M.T. (1982) Zinc-lead skarns of the Yeonhwa-Ulchin district, South Korea. Economic Geology, v.77, p.1013-1032.

Cited by

  1. Ore Minerals and Genetic Environments of the Seungryung Zn Deposit, Muzu, Korea vol.48, pp.1, 2015,